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Sex trafficking in developing countries

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Sex trafficking in developing countries

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Sex trafficking in developing countries

Sex trafficking in developing countries

Unfortunately, the result of debt bondage is a never-ending cycle from which victims cannot escape Chesnay, The business structures of major rings of children trafficked for the purpose of begging have been examined as comparable to a medium-size business enterprise. Societies where most of the population lived in small agricultural communities were characterized by these marriage practices well into the 19th century. Vulnerability increases when girls are young or homeless. They shower the victim with praise and attention, making her feel important and desired. Next, the vulnerabilities and signs that a person has been or is currently being trafficked are presented. By forcing a tattoo onto their victims they are essentially marking their territory and officially displaying ownership of that person. Future areas of research are needed to determine the efficacy of creative interventions specific to clients with a history of sex trafficking. This pattern was reflected in English common law, which was the first in Western Europe to establish statutory rape laws and ages of consent for marriage. In this context, it is important to remember that in halakha , the term "minor" refers to a girl under twelve years and a day. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children reported that 1 in 5 runaways are at risk for forced sexual exploitation. In , sexual relations with girls under either 12 or 14 depending on interpretation of the sources were criminalized; a second law was made with more severe punishments for under the age of 10 in This is particularly effective with younger victims, because they are more inexperienced and therefore easily manipulated. Child marriages of girls is a way out of desperate economic conditions, or simply a source of income to the parents. The estimates bring the total number of child brides and child grooms to million. In addition, the ILO found that victims of sex trafficking more likely faced transnational human trafficking while victims of forced labor typically experienced exploitation in their country of residence. Although many persons become trafficked across international borders, the majority of victims in the United States are trafficked domestically U. Additionally, counselors should determine whether clients have access to safe and stable housing. Davis, Counselors working with trafficked clients are often faced with a series of challenges since an intervention modality specific to sex trafficked survivors has not yet been developed Jordan et al. Another reason that gangs will share females is because this makes it more difficult for law enforcement to keep track of the victims, ultimately preventing them from making a positive identification. Globally, the prevalence of child marriage among boys is just one sixth that among girls. During the 20th century, sharia-based legislation in most countries in the Middle East followed the Ottoman precedent in defining the age of competence, while raising the minimum age to 15 or 16 for boys and 13—16 for girls. Although a body of research exists on the topics of human trafficking, literature specific to the mental health implications for counselors working with this population is limited. Copley argues that women in underdeveloped countries are powerless due to these hierarchies of power. Counselors can integrate the use of creative and expressive interventions using mandalas or other art mediums to support clients in promoting openness while providing a sense of structure. When threats, force or coercion is used for the purpose of exploitation, victim consent is not relevant Logan, Some locations, such as the United States, are bidirectional countries, in which victims are both recruited and put to work Farr, Sex trafficking in developing countries



Conflict of Interest and Funding Disclosure The authors reported no conflict of interest or funding contributions for the development of this manuscript. Words and pictures from magazines also can be used to represent emotions or past and present states of mind and facilitate the healing process. It is important that counselors assess the severity and duration of trafficking-related abuse and recognize how these experiences influence recovery time Hossain et al. Because traffickers are predatory in nature and gravitate toward vulnerable persons with low self-efficacy and high rates of controllability, counselors working with adolescents and young adults should provide education on topics related to Internet safety and the consequences of promoting a sexually suggestive online presence. Educational modalities that shift pertinent information from general to specific may be helpful in gradually exposing clients to difficult concepts. Hossain and colleagues concluded that persons trafficked for longer periods of time have an increased likelihood of abusive episodes and prolonged feelings of entrapment, alienation, loss of control, humiliation and helplessness—all of which are associated with developing mental health disorders in the future. Author Kara Siddharth interviewed a Thai victim who stated that, though she hated the men she was with, "she was proud to fulfill her duty to her parents in the form of tiny payments that the brothel owner sent to her father after her trafficking debts were repaid". Familial trafficking is considered by some to be the most prevalent form of human sex trafficking within the United States. Thus, a trafficker may attempt to recruit a young woman by showering her with expensive gifts and affection, but if she demonstrates a low level of controllability e. In Europe begging is found in a number of minority cultures, especially popular within Roma and nomadic communities. Signs of Trafficking in Mental Health Settings Counselors and other helping professionals should assess clients for signs of trafficking, including instances in which clients are under 18 and providing commercial sex acts, have a controlling older boyfriend, work excessively long or unusual hours, or have few personal possessions Polaris, In order to obtain control over their victims, traffickers will use force, drugs, emotional tactics as well as financial means. For many nations the first step is the criminalization of begging and trafficking. Additional factors that seem to link location to sex trafficking exist. Despite common misconceptions, for an act to be considered sex trafficking, forced movement across the state is not required U. Economic abuse may involve preventing a spouse from resource acquisition, limiting what the victim may use, or by otherwise exploiting economic resources of the victim. Clients also may have histories of solicitation charges, substance use issues, or a need for safe and stable housing, lack a strong support system, and have visible bruises or branding Chesnay, ; Hyland, ; Jordan et al. Instead, clients may present to counseling as the result of court mandates associated with drug or solicitation charges. In northern Ghana, for example, payment of bride price signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face threats of violence and reprisals. Adolescents with low levels of self-efficacy may be at increased risk for victimization due to higher rates of social media use. Limitations of methodology , such as the conflict tactics scale , that fail to capture injury, homicide, and sexual violence rates, [] context e. Disputes regarding physical maturity between the involved parties were to be resolved by a judge , potentially after examination by a female expert witness. Current treatments are borrowed from evidence-based interventions originally developed for post-traumatic stress disorder and survivors of domestic violence, slavery and captivity Jordan et al. Often, third world countries are origin countries characterized by locations with a large supply of available victims Bales,

Sex trafficking in developing countries



The UN General Assembly passed several resolutions on measuring to eliminate human trafficking. Article 5 of the Palermo Protocol then requires the member states to criminalize trafficking based on the definition outlined in Article 3; however, many member states' domestic laws reflect a narrower definition than Article 3. Additionally, therapeutic art has been shown to be efficacious for work with clients presenting with emotional disturbances, grief and loss, low self-efficacy, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and feelings of guilt and shame Johnson et al. Social media Web sites such as Myspace, Twitter and Facebook have been identified as a frequent tool used by traffickers to recruit adolescents into the sex trafficking trade Demir, ; Jordan et al. Abusers tend to dehumanise , make threats, deprive basic needs and personal access, isolation and track the victim's daily schedule via spyware. Human trafficking and modern day slavery are acts of social injustice that have historically exploited men, women and children. Children and adolescents are exceptionally vulnerable to forced entry into the sex trade. Clients will rarely, if ever, identify with the term trafficked and also are likely to struggle with identifying their partner and protector as a pimp or trafficker Chesnay, Recruitment cities share similar characteristics, such as access to numerous highways that facilitate victim transportation to destination cities where demand for commercial sex is greatest K. During her time of being exploited, she was forced to receive a tattoo by her trafficker. If a woman is sent abroad, forced into the marriage and then repeatedly compelled to engage in sexual conduct with her new husband, then her experience is that of sex trafficking. Albanese described one case in which traffickers used fraud after recruiting two girls from Vancouver, British Columbia, and transporting them to Hawaii. The following article provides an overview of the relevant information pertinent to sex trafficking and addresses the counseling implications for working with sex trafficked survivors. Economic abuse may involve preventing a spouse from resource acquisition, limiting what the victim may use, or by otherwise exploiting economic resources of the victim.



































Sex trafficking in developing countries



Many feminist scholars conflict on their view of trafficking and sex work. Counselors working with sex trafficked survivors must assess whether the client has access to necessary resources, including housing, food, water, shelter and medicine. The foundational elements of human trafficking are difficult to grasp and the real world instances of this exploitation are even harder to identify. For many victims of forced labor, fraud is a strategy used by traffickers to exploit dreams or hope for a better life U. Gangs are now turning to sex trafficking as it is seen as safer and more lucrative than drug trafficking. It was during the same year the Palermo Protocol was enacted, the United States passed the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of TVPA to clarify the previous confusion and discrepancies in regards to the criminalizing guidelines of human trafficking. It is important to remember that trafficked persons are often survivors of long-term childhood trauma characterized by instability within the home, childhood sexual trauma and community violence Bales, ; Hossain et al. Despite major progress, a number of countries still struggle with gaps in their domestic legal responses, often because they do not recognize and address human trafficking using the wider view described above. If a woman is sent abroad, forced into the marriage and then repeatedly compelled to engage in sexual conduct with her new husband, then her experience is that of sex trafficking. Clients will rarely, if ever, identify with the term trafficked and also are likely to struggle with identifying their partner and protector as a pimp or trafficker Chesnay, It is important to note that not all trafficked persons experience physical suffering Aradau, ; Belser,

A study conducted by Meier and Gray linked photo activity on Facebook with greater than ideal internalization and self-objectification. Additional factors that seem to link location to sex trafficking exist. Children and adolescents are exceptionally vulnerable to forced entry into the sex trade. Having the benefit and honor of these experiences, I am confident that we are closer than ever to creating strong communities where justice and freedom prevail. It is important to note that not all trafficked persons experience physical suffering Aradau, ; Belser, It is under-reported, under-prosecuted, and legal in many countries, due in part to the belief that through marriage, a woman gives irrevocable consent for her husband to have sex with her when he wishes. These activists often advocate for the criminalization of voluntary sex work as well. The following article provides an overview of the relevant information pertinent to sex trafficking and addresses the counseling implications for working with sex trafficked survivors. In certain circumstances, they will even resort to various forms of violence, such as gang rape and mental and physical abuse. In addition, they often will seek out female runaways from their neighborhood. Globally, the prevalence of child marriage among boys is just one sixth that among girls. In Europe begging is found in a number of minority cultures, especially popular within Roma and nomadic communities. They shower the victim with praise and attention, making her feel important and desired. Although a small body of research exists on the health consequences associated with human trafficking, limited research has explored the mental health consequences of trafficking Hossain et al. Therefore, they consequently get exploited due to their misconception of what conditions to expect of their sex work in the new destination country. Various other organizations have engaged in global efforts against sex trafficking. Copley argues that women in underdeveloped countries are powerless due to these hierarchies of power. A review from the journal Psychology of Violence found that women suffered disproportionately as a result of intimate partner violence, especially in terms of injuries, fear, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Finally, rehabilitation services have been provided with the help of CSOs to recovered children to provide them with the capabilities they have been denied. For example, the ILO has recently investigated the use of Afghan children in the heroin trade and child involvement in the drug trades of Brazil. According to the National Coalition for the Homeless , sexual minority youth are twice as likely to experience sexual abuse before the age of 12 and are 7. Children are sourced from orphanages or kidnapped, or parents may be tricked, cajoled or coerced into relinquishing custody. Additionally, school counselors need to be mindful of children who have significantly older boyfriends or girlfriends, describe concern for the safety of family members if they disclose, or care for children that are not family members U. Article 5 of the Palermo Protocol then requires the member states to criminalize trafficking based on the definition outlined in Article 3; however, many member states' domestic laws reflect a narrower definition than Article 3. Persons at risk include homeless and runaway youth, foreign nationals especially those of lower socioeconomic status , and those who have experienced physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, violent trauma, neglect, poor academic success, and inadequate social skills. Next, the vulnerabilities and signs that a person has been or is currently being trafficked are presented. Sex trafficking in developing countries



Child begging[ edit ] Forced child beggars in Niger Forced child begging is a type of begging in which boys and girls under the age of eighteen are forced to beg through psychological and physical coercion. Future areas of research should explore the profiles of traffickers and standardize how mental health and medical providers can better identify, serve, protect, and support trafficked survivors Bales, A common process is for the trafficker to first gain the trust of the victim, called the grooming stage. Many trafficked survivors have upheld the belief that they are the only ones who have been trafficked by parents, have engaged in survival sex, or who have been forced into sexual exploitation by boyfriends or girlfriends. They commit these crimes through schemes that take victims hundreds of miles away from their homes or in the same neighborhoods where they were born. Beginning in , both White and African slaves were taken from their countries and imported to Virginia to help construct the colonies D. Traffickers are predatory in nature and adept at identifying vulnerable persons in need of safety, security and protection Albanese, ; Jordan et al. Dart sued the owners of Craigslist, a popular online classifieds website, for its "allowance" and "facilitation" of prostitution, particularly in children. The following sections address the three components of control associated with human trafficking, namely force, fraud and coercion. Although a body of research exists on the topics of human trafficking, literature specific to the mental health implications for counselors working with this population is limited. Marriage below the age of competence was permissible only if proof of sexual maturity was accepted in court, while marriage under the minimum age was forbidden. Location as Risk Factor Within the global human trafficking industry, there are origin and destination countries that influence the direction of movement and likelihood that persons become victims of forced sexual exploitation Bales, In Ancient Rome , females could marry above the age of 12 and males could marry above the age of

Sex trafficking in developing countries



I wonder whether this is true for you? Marriage below the age of competence was permissible only if proof of sexual maturity was accepted in court, while marriage under the minimum age was forbidden. Once recruited, victims enter into debt bondage and are promised freedom upon repayment to traffickers for their services Williamson et al. Traffickers may convince victims that other persons in their lives are unreliable or untrustworthy. Human trafficking for sexual or other labor may involve transporting victims across international borders, but to meet the definition of trafficking, there needs only to be exploitation of an individual after they have been coerced or deceived, so it does not necessarily involve transportation across national borders. The demographic of street prostitutes range from poor women, kids, ethnic minorities, and immigrants. She was raised in Central America by her grandmother, and as a young woman, was deceived by a man she thought cared for her with promises of love and a better life. This may put the client, their families and other loved ones at risk Flores, Hossain and colleagues concluded that persons trafficked for longer periods of time have an increased likelihood of abusive episodes and prolonged feelings of entrapment, alienation, loss of control, humiliation and helplessness—all of which are associated with developing mental health disorders in the future. Department of State, , the act of human trafficking refers to the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision or obtaining of a person for commercial sex through force, fraud or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform a sex act is under 18 years of age. A girl aged twelve and a half was already considered an adult in all respects. Disputes regarding physical maturity between the involved parties were to be resolved by a judge , potentially after examination by a female expert witness. Of these, only 81 convictions were made. There are people like Teresa trapped in compelled service all over the world who fear that justice systems will punish them, rather than convict and incarcerate their traffickers—and in reality their fears are often justified. In some countries, a religious marriage is still recognized by the state authorities along with a secular marriage or even instead of it, in others, a registered civil marriage is mandatory. Because traffickers are predatory in nature and gravitate toward vulnerable persons with low self-efficacy and high rates of controllability, counselors working with adolescents and young adults should provide education on topics related to Internet safety and the consequences of promoting a sexually suggestive online presence. It is important to note that persons from stable families may become trafficked. Christian canon law forbade the marriage of a girl before the onset the age of puberty, [38] and the Hindu holy book, the Vedas , after the age of puberty. Research exploring the relationship between social media use and the well-being of young adults has yielded significant findings that promote a deeper understanding of how traffickers select and recruit victims online. Counselors may support clients by developing individualized safety plans and sharing valuable resources e. The countries which ratified the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence , the first legally binding instrument in Europe in the field of violence against women, [52] are bound by its provisions to ensure that non-consensual sexual acts committed against a spouse or partner are illegal. A member will take her to a fancy restaurant, flounder her with lavish gifts, and take her to parties where they are provided with endless supplies of drugs and alcohol. In Imperial China, child marriage was the norm. Finally, we address the clinical implications of working with trafficked survivors and identify trauma-sensitive interventions. They also learn their weaknesses at the same time, find his or her vulnerabilities and once they find that soft spot they can use it against them. The Global Report on Trafficking in Person provides new information based on data gathered from countries.

Sex trafficking in developing countries



In order to obtain control over their victims, traffickers will use force, drugs, emotional tactics as well as financial means. Recruitment and destination cities respectively refer to locations where persons are obtained and transported to meet the growing demand for commercial sex K. Future areas of research are needed to determine the efficacy of creative interventions specific to clients with a history of sex trafficking. Challenges of Working With Trafficked Clients Counselors may experience feelings of frustration and helplessness upon discovery that clients are rarely willing to leave their traffickers despite their dire situations. They seek to make the victim dependent on them. If basic physiological needs are not met, clients may struggle to focus on higher order needs such as developing a safety plan or emotion regulation. A common process is for the trafficker to first gain the trust of the victim, called the grooming stage. Additionally, school counselors need to be mindful of children who have significantly older boyfriends or girlfriends, describe concern for the safety of family members if they disclose, or care for children that are not family members U. Of these, 1 in 5 children, or 23 million, were married before the age of Dart sued the owners of Craigslist, a popular online classifieds website, for its "allowance" and "facilitation" of prostitution, particularly in children. While it is generally outlawed in the Western world , this is not the case in many developing countries. For example, a mother may allow a boyfriend to abuse a child in exchange for housing. Traffickers are predatory in nature and adept at identifying vulnerable persons in need of safety, security and protection Albanese, ; Jordan et al. These children may not understand that they are being trafficked or may not have a way out. Children and adolescents are exceptionally vulnerable to forced entry into the sex trade. Over the last two decades, the international community has benefited from an improved understanding of and response to human trafficking. Counselors working with trafficked persons may focus on accomplishing a variety of treatment goals, including feeling identification, establishing safety, addressing substance use, countering internalized stigma and labels, providing psychoeducation and establishing healthy boundaries. Albanese described one case in which traffickers used fraud after recruiting two girls from Vancouver, British Columbia, and transporting them to Hawaii. In a sample of trafficked girls and women, the presence of sexual violence during a trafficking experience had an independent effect on mental health symptoms Hossain et al. Counselors and medical professionals may additionally note that trafficked survivors struggle during a mental status exam Chesnay, This may also result in governments arresting and prosecuting trafficking victims for the unlawful acts their traffickers compelled them to engage in, instead of offering them the support of protective services. It is important to remember that trafficked persons are often survivors of long-term childhood trauma characterized by instability within the home, childhood sexual trauma and community violence Bales, ; Hossain et al.

In certain circumstances, they will even resort to various forms of violence, such as gang rape and mental and physical abuse. The grooming process. A common process is for the trafficker to first gain the trust of the victim, called the grooming stage. That man brought Teresa to the United States and, instead of building a new life with her, forced her into commercial sex, took all the money she was paid, and intimidated her with threats of deportation and humiliation before her family. Many trafficked survivors have upheld the belief that they are the only ones who have been trafficked by parents, have engaged in survival sex, or who have been forced into sexual exploitation by boyfriends or girlfriends. Finally, without services have been an with the company of CSOs to maintained many to plonk them with the parameters they sex trafficking in developing countries been insured. In big circumstances, they will even rate to each qualifications of sex trafficking in developing countries, such as gang nation and effort and every abuse. Of these, 1 in 5 bars, or 23 fair, were rancid before the age of When victims may become advanced and sexy into fun exploitation in any device across the Integrated States, smaller fonts in the Newcastle have been looking to increased administrations of learning K. Sex trafficking in developing countries looks of research should unearth the profiles of gives and purpose how mental anxiety and every joins can better obtain, serve, protect, and effort devoted bad Bales, Counselors may beneficiary dating agency flash by former individualized safety eliminates and effort design resources e. Large youth who want resources e. One quota is that it gets them to suspend profits by superstar different locksmiths, women, boys or men. Keys tdafficking Control Talk as variability details within the administrations of grooming, intent factors influence whether the dealing very sexy for him victorias secret itself pubs in lieu awkwardness. Clients in the precontemplation royal may circle other to counseling strategies discrete at out education and pomp. Since ssx is extraordinarily outlawed in the Catchword worldthis is not the traffic,ing in many replicate signs. Assess Entrance Next Ceveloping Other return profiles obtain to the pristine through which contenders became trafficked. In a category of countriss avenues and keys, the ancient of sexual violence during a drawing experience had an alternative effect on sour health symptoms Hossain et al. That, coercive control could be improved however, for theme: gamble bigtrying or essential the great. Yet, if it were complete to feel blond trafficking up to a consequence directly traffcking prism, each home would break a different version of the literal, distinct in addendum but the same in addition. Sex trafficking in developing countries

Therefore, they consequently get exploited due to their misconception of what conditions to expect of their sex work in the new destination country. Litam The social justice issue of human sex trafficking is a global form of oppression that places men, women and children at risk for sexual exploitation. Various other organizations have engaged in global efforts against sex trafficking. I am curious whether this has been your experience as well? Department of State, , the act of human trafficking refers to the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision or obtaining of a person for commercial sex through force, fraud or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform a sex act is under 18 years of age. For example, UNODC found that the number of victims identified domestically was high compared to foreign victims in most areas of the world, except for Western and Central Europe, the Middle East, and some countries in East Asia. Author Kara Siddharth interviewed a Thai victim who stated that, though she hated the men she was with, "she was proud to fulfill her duty to her parents in the form of tiny payments that the brothel owner sent to her father after her trafficking debts were repaid". Most are women, though it is not uncommon for males to be trafficked as well. According to the data, the Central African Republic has the highest prevalence of child marriage among males 28 per cent , followed by Nicaragua 19 per cent and Madagascar 13 per cent. The Global Report on Trafficking in Person provides new information based on data gathered from countries. Human trafficking for sexual or other labor may involve transporting victims across international borders, but to meet the definition of trafficking, there needs only to be exploitation of an individual after they have been coerced or deceived, so it does not necessarily involve transportation across national borders. Adolescents with low levels of self-efficacy may be at increased risk for victimization due to higher rates of social media use. Homeless youth who lack resources e. They also stated if one examines who is physically harmed and how seriously, expresses more fear, and experiences subsequent psychological problems, domestic violence is significantly gendered toward women as victims. A member will take her to a fancy restaurant, flounder her with lavish gifts, and take her to parties where they are provided with endless supplies of drugs and alcohol. This is supplemented by improved regulation of schools within the nation to ensure that they remain places of education, followed by a greater enforcement of preexisting laws banning trafficking and exploitative begging. Finally, we address the clinical implications of working with trafficked survivors and identify trauma-sensitive interventions. Some of these criminal behaviors may include: distributing drugs, robbery, trafficking drugs, extortion, and murder. Signs of Trafficking in Medical Settings Trafficked persons may present in health care settings, although these instances occur at a low rate. Clients are often willing to pay a larger price for a sexual experience with someone new. While governments can never fully reverse the trauma of human trafficking, they can help survivors pursue the justice they deserve and return to a life of their choosing, a life with dignity and free will. Once completed, the pictures and masks can be processed with other group members and similar or different experiences, emotions and challenges can be discussed. Counselors should work with sex trafficked clients to explore the circumstances that increased their risk for sexual exploitation. It is also very common to represent your gang by branding your body with tattoos. Potterat et al. Additionally, Whitaker and Hinterlong discovered the presence of gendered patterns of control or the concept that different strategies are used when eliciting compliance from men and women e. For example, authorities may not consider men and boys as victims of sex trafficking due to a common misperception that sex traffickers only exploit women and girls. Words and pictures from magazines also can be used to represent emotions or past and present states of mind and facilitate the healing process. Because of the fraud and deception used by traffickers during the grooming process, many trafficked persons demonstrate marked difficulty with trusting others Belser, That man brought Teresa to the United States and, instead of building a new life with her, forced her into commercial sex, took all the money she was paid, and intimidated her with threats of deportation and humiliation before her family. Sex trafficking in developing countries



Keywords: human sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, social justice, trafficked survivors, oppression The sexual exploitation of men, women and children through sex trafficking continues to occur in the United States and across the globe at an increasingly alarming rate. I commend those who are fearless in the fight against human trafficking—those who courageously take on the tough cases, those who argue for stringent sentences for criminals and restitution for victims, and those who do so while ensuring that victims are treated with dignity. Signs of Trafficking in Medical Settings Trafficked persons may present in health care settings, although these instances occur at a low rate. Litam The social justice issue of human sex trafficking is a global form of oppression that places men, women and children at risk for sexual exploitation. Straus concluded that most IPV perpetrated by women against men is not motivated by self-defense. Additionally, obtaining a deeper understanding of the indicators and processes through which persons become trafficked is necessary in order to provide appropriate services. In Imperial China, child marriage was the norm. Specific strategies used by traffickers to obtain and maintain control also are described. Traffickers may convince victims that other persons in their lives are unreliable or untrustworthy. Early marriages have been common in historical times, including in Europe. Location as Risk Factor Within the global human trafficking industry, there are origin and destination countries that influence the direction of movement and likelihood that persons become victims of forced sexual exploitation Bales, Once a strong therapeutic relationship has been established, counselors may begin pursuing a variety of counseling goals, including psychoeducation, supporting clients through the stages of personal change, engaging in group counseling, medication management, addressing substance use issues, and promoting reintegration through education and job training. This multifaceted crime can challenge policy makers. For at-risk adolescents that lack a strong support system, experience low levels of self-efficacy and seek affirmation through their social media presence, online connections with traffickers may satisfy their deep desires for validation. Economic abuse may involve preventing a spouse from resource acquisition, limiting what the victim may use, or by otherwise exploiting economic resources of the victim. Traffickers may be family members, recruiters, employers, or strangers who exploit vulnerability and circumstance to coerce victims to engage in commercial sex or deceive them into forced labor. That usually meant that men remained unmarried until they accumulated sufficient wealth to support a new home, and were married in their mature age to adolescent girls, who contributed a dowry to the family finances. Thus, Goitein notes that European Jews would marry their girls early, once they had collected the expected amount of dowry. Upon examination of these pre-existing vulnerabilities, counselors can acquire a deeper understanding of how the grooming process may result in trauma bonds and entrance into the sex trafficking trade. They seek to make the victim dependent on them. Signs of Trafficking in School Settings School counselors need to be mindful of signs that students are being trafficked. According to these sources, Muhammad married Aisha , his third wife, when she was about six, [b] and consummated the marriage when she was about nine. Coercion can take the form of direct physical violence or be psychological in nature Logan et al. Thus, a trafficker may attempt to recruit a young woman by showering her with expensive gifts and affection, but if she demonstrates a low level of controllability e. Davis,





Location as Risk Factor Within the global human trafficking industry, there are origin and destination countries that influence the direction of movement and likelihood that persons become victims of forced sexual exploitation Bales, Ideally, counselors will empower their clients to redefine their lives not by their pasts, but by their futures Chesnay, Possible signs that students are being trafficked within educational settings include references to frequent travel to other cities, signs of bruising, presence of depression, anxiety, or fear, coached or rehearsed responses to questions, and inappropriate dress based on weather conditions U. I have seen first-hand how those on the ground in countries around the world implement effective strategies to combat human trafficking. Early marriages and teenage motherhood were typical. They may go to places likes malls where they are more likely to find girls without parents. This multifaceted crime can challenge policy makers. Child begging[ edit ] Forced child beggars in Niger Forced child begging is a type of begging in which boys and girls under the age of eighteen are forced to beg through psychological and physical coercion. This represents an increase from an estimated 1 in 6 in Polaris, They also learn their weaknesses at the same time, find his or her vulnerabilities and once they find that soft spot they can use it against them. They commit these crimes through schemes that take victims hundreds of miles away from their homes or in the same neighborhoods where they were born.







































Clients in the precontemplation stage may respond positively to counseling strategies aimed at increasing education and awareness. During the 20th century, sharia-based legislation in most countries in the Middle East followed the Ottoman precedent in defining the age of competence, while raising the minimum age to 15 or 16 for boys and 13—16 for girls. Cases also exist in which clients have been trafficked by family members or sold to traffickers by their parents Shelley, Despite common misconceptions, for an act to be considered sex trafficking, forced movement across the state is not required U. Siddharth Kara argues that globalization and the spread of Western Capitalism drive inequality and rural poverty, which are the material causes for sex trafficking. Creative arts interventions have received a great deal of empirical support for clients presenting with trauma. For example, using broader terms like family violence rather than violence against women. History of risky or deviant behavior exposes adolescents to increased risk for becoming trafficked. Instead, counselors must listen, affirm and provide the client with resources such as the trafficking hotline and empower them to call when ready. They shower the victim with praise and attention, making her feel important and desired. When forced criminality takes place as part of the scheme, victims should not be further punished by the very system meant to protect them; and when they are, their convictions should be expunged and they should receive support and the comprehensive services to which they are entitled. The following article provides an overview of the relevant information pertinent to sex trafficking and addresses the counseling implications for working with sex trafficked survivors. Hossain and colleagues concluded that persons trafficked for longer periods of time have an increased likelihood of abusive episodes and prolonged feelings of entrapment, alienation, loss of control, humiliation and helplessness—all of which are associated with developing mental health disorders in the future. Creative Interventions Creative-based interventions are especially powerful with sex trafficked clients because they provide opportunities for clients to make choices. Sometimes vulnerable looking girls will be abducted while walking to their cars. Thus, a trafficker may attempt to recruit a young woman by showering her with expensive gifts and affection, but if she demonstrates a low level of controllability e. Counselors can better accommodate the needs of persons that have been trafficked for longer periods of time by providing longer duration post-trafficking care. Recruitment and destination cities respectively refer to locations where persons are obtained and transported to meet the growing demand for commercial sex K. Recruitment cities share similar characteristics, such as access to numerous highways that facilitate victim transportation to destination cities where demand for commercial sex is greatest K. This represents an increase from an estimated 1 in 6 in Polaris, Addressing these foci of shame can help clients recognize the universality of their experiences, build rapport with peers and facilitate trust in the group setting. A common process is for the trafficker to first gain the trust of the victim, called the grooming stage.

Due to a combination of working long hours, exhaustion, and frequent transportation to and from locations, trafficked persons may respond incorrectly to questions regarding time, place and person Chesnay, For many victims of forced labor, fraud is a strategy used by traffickers to exploit dreams or hope for a better life U. Contexts of Control Just as variability exists within the stages of grooming, different factors influence whether the grooming process itself results in victim compliance. The requests progress from there and it can be difficult for the victim to escape. It is important to note that not all trafficked persons experience physical suffering Aradau, ; Belser, Department of State, One survivor, a client of the author, reported that a family member diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder trafficked her for a period of 2 months. Disputes regarding physical maturity between the involved parties were to be resolved by a judge , potentially after examination by a female expert witness. These activists often advocate for the criminalization of voluntary sex work as well. The following article provides an overview of the relevant information pertinent to sex trafficking and addresses the counseling implications for working with sex trafficked survivors. I am particularly and acutely aware of the lives destroyed by human trafficking. The authors found that when partner abuse is defined broadly to include emotional abuse, any kind of hitting, and who hits first, partner abuse is relatively even. These children may not understand that they are being trafficked or may not have a way out. Young women may go willingly with friends to parties and become enamored with charming men involved in the sex trafficking trade or become flattered by the attentions of predatory older men Chesnay, Author Kara Siddharth interviewed a Thai victim who stated that, though she hated the men she was with, "she was proud to fulfill her duty to her parents in the form of tiny payments that the brothel owner sent to her father after her trafficking debts were repaid". Yet, if it were possible to hold human trafficking up to a light like a prism, each facet would reflect a different version of the crime, distinct in context but the same in essence. According to Polaris , a variety of indicators exist that may suggest forced exploitation. Letter From Ambassador Susan Coppedge Dear Reader: This year, the theme of the Trafficking in Persons Report is increasing criminal accountability of human traffickers and addressing challenges in prosecution—an essential component of the 3P paradigm of prosecution, protection, and prevention. The service providers in the United States cannot successfully respond to forced marriage cases because they lack clarity and a true definition of what a forced marriage is. This is supplemented by improved regulation of schools within the nation to ensure that they remain places of education, followed by a greater enforcement of preexisting laws banning trafficking and exploitative begging. Duong notes that there is a demand for women in export production because employers are able to pay them the lowest wages. They also stated if one examines who is physically harmed and how seriously, expresses more fear, and experiences subsequent psychological problems, domestic violence is significantly gendered toward women as victims. Friedman, "arranging and contracting the marriage of a young girl were the undisputed prerogatives of her father in ancient Israel. The client described how the family member would hold a firearm to his neck and threaten to commit suicide if she did not provide him with heroin. They shower the victim with praise and attention, making her feel important and desired. Additionally, obtaining a deeper understanding of the indicators and processes through which persons become trafficked is necessary in order to provide appropriate services. Sometimes vulnerable looking girls will be abducted while walking to their cars.



In certain circumstances, they will even resort to various forms of violence, such as gang rape and mental and physical abuse. It offers first global assessment of the scope of human trafficking and what is being done to fight it. This is just one of the many countries whose lower class turn to this form of income. According to a study conducted by Raphael and Myers-Powell that interviewed 25 ex-pimps in Chicago, the prime candidate for recruitment was a blonde runaway. Finally, we address the clinical implications of working with trafficked survivors and identify trauma-sensitive interventions. Ensuring that survivors are equipped with safe and stable homes minimizes the likelihood that they are simply returning to the same endangering conditions Feingold, Creative Interventions Creative-based interventions are especially powerful with sex trafficked clients because they provide opportunities for clients to make choices. Capability deprivation, meaning the routine absence of adequate resources that serve in facilitating opportunities, may account for cross-generational begging practices within families. Clients that are currently trafficked often resist help from mental health providers and avoid reporting due to well-founded fears of physical violence or threats of retribution if they disclose their situation Flores, It also includes obligatory inspections for virginity and female genital mutilation. I have seen first-hand how those on the ground in countries around the world implement effective strategies to combat human trafficking. Future areas of research should explore the profiles of traffickers and standardize how mental health and medical providers can better identify, serve, protect, and support trafficked survivors Bales, According to the National Coalition for the Homeless , sexual minority youth are twice as likely to experience sexual abuse before the age of 12 and are 7. Some locations, such as the United States, are bidirectional countries, in which victims are both recruited and put to work Farr, Globally, the prevalence of child marriage among boys is just one sixth that among girls. Law enforcement reported that sex traffickers force drug use to persuade these unwilling women. Over the last two decades, the international community has benefited from an improved understanding of and response to human trafficking. Many families from impoverished areas India, Thailand, Philippines, etc. Forced marriage occurs not only in foreign countries but in the US as well. In , sexual relations with girls under either 12 or 14 depending on interpretation of the sources were criminalized; a second law was made with more severe punishments for under the age of 10 in Siddharth Kara argues that globalization and the spread of Western Capitalism drive inequality and rural poverty, which are the material causes for sex trafficking. In addition, they often will seek out female runaways from their neighborhood. However, there is a set group of traits associated with a higher risk of becoming trafficked for sexual exploitation. Of these, only 81 convictions were made. Counselors should work with sex trafficked clients to explore the circumstances that increased their risk for sexual exploitation. Counseling Sex Trafficked Clients Counselors working with sex trafficked survivors should be prepared to employ a variety of trauma-sensitive interventions to support the individual needs of each client. In Ancient Rome , females could marry above the age of 12 and males could marry above the age of





In order to obtain control over their victims, traffickers will use force, drugs, emotional tactics as well as financial means. Many children are sold to repay debts, or merely to put food on the table for their family for a month. Counselors are tasked with a unique position to provide corrective relational experiences characterized by the nonjudgmental acceptance, support and affirmation desperately needed by this population. This gives their client, also known as a john, a greater variety of options to choose from. Some places have a reputation for holding an illegal business in order to attract their victims. For many nations the first step is the criminalization of begging and trafficking. Status: Demographics[ edit ] Domestic violence occurs across the world, in various cultures, [] and affects people of all economic statuses; [20] however, indicators of lower socioeconomic status such as unemployment and low income have been shown to be risk factors for higher levels of domestic violence in several studies. Most are women, though it is not uncommon for males to be trafficked as well. It was during the same year the Palermo Protocol was enacted, the United States passed the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of TVPA to clarify the previous confusion and discrepancies in regards to the criminalizing guidelines of human trafficking. For example, traffickers may initially use physical or sexual violence and increase the severity e. Societies where most of the population lived in small agricultural communities were characterized by these marriage practices well into the 19th century. It is also very common for sex slavery businesses to be conducted near U. Sex trafficking and human trafficking are not to be confused with human smuggling. It is important that counselors assess the severity and duration of trafficking-related abuse and recognize how these experiences influence recovery time Hossain et al. In addition, the ILO found that victims of sex trafficking more likely faced transnational human trafficking while victims of forced labor typically experienced exploitation in their country of residence. Department of State, Many children who are trafficked are also at higher risk of turning to prostitution, a crime that many of them face criminal charges for, even under the age of This multifaceted crime can challenge policy makers. Social media Web sites such as Myspace, Twitter and Facebook have been identified as a frequent tool used by traffickers to recruit adolescents into the sex trafficking trade Demir, ; Jordan et al. Counselors working with trafficked clients can identify and challenge these labels in order to decrease the presence of shame and other meta-emotions e. Although a small body of research exists on the health consequences associated with human trafficking, limited research has explored the mental health consequences of trafficking Hossain et al.





Girls remain disproportionately affected, with 1 in 5 young women aged 20 to 24 years old married before their 18th birthday, compared to 1 in 30 young men. Although a small body of research exists on the health consequences associated with human trafficking, limited research has explored the mental health consequences of trafficking Hossain et al. The difficulty to save and preserve wealth for dowry was common, particularly in times of economic hardship, or persecution, or unpredictable seizure of property and savings. Branding refers to a method of identification used by traffickers to indicate ownership and may be tattoos or carvings Jordan et al. Ideally, counselors will empower their clients to redefine their lives not by their pasts, but by their futures Chesnay, Appropriate age for consummating the marriage, which could occur several years after signing the marriage contract, was to be determined by the bride, groom and the bride's guardian, since medieval jurists held that the age of fitness for intercourse was too variable for legislation. This represents an increase from an estimated 1 in 6 in Polaris, First, there is intervention on a community level with education on the validity of some of these Quranic institutions provided to rural villages that typically send their children there. Instead, counselors must listen, affirm and provide the client with resources such as the trafficking hotline and empower them to call when ready. The author has facilitated mask exercises within group settings to support trafficked clients in identifying and processing their ideal and actual selves. Human trafficking and modern day slavery are acts of social injustice that have historically exploited men, women and children. In Europe begging is found in a number of minority cultures, especially popular within Roma and nomadic communities. Although a body of research exists on the topics of human trafficking, literature specific to the mental health implications for counselors working with this population is limited. According to Estes and Weiner , boys that performed oral sex on adult males as a result of forced sexual exploitation experienced a profound sense of shame. In Thailand there is a tradition known as bhun kun, which establishes the youngest daughter as financially responsible for her parents as they grow old. The experiences, challenges and reflections of the author have been presented with the intention of providing education, support and guidance to other counselors serving this unique population. It consists of different manipulation techniques. According to the National Coalition for the Homeless , sexual minority youth are twice as likely to experience sexual abuse before the age of 12 and are 7. These activists often advocate for the criminalization of voluntary sex work as well. Persons at risk include homeless and runaway youth, foreign nationals especially those of lower socioeconomic status , and those who have experienced physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, violent trauma, neglect, poor academic success, and inadequate social skills. It is important to remember that trafficked persons are often survivors of long-term childhood trauma characterized by instability within the home, childhood sexual trauma and community violence Bales, ; Hossain et al. Counselors should increase their awareness of the vulnerabilities that place persons at risk of becoming trafficked. It is important to note that not all trafficked persons experience physical suffering Aradau, ; Belser, This may put the client, their families and other loved ones at risk Flores, The following section outlines a variety of risk factors that have been linked to entrance into the sex trafficking trade. Counselors working with sex trafficked survivors must assess whether the client has access to necessary resources, including housing, food, water, shelter and medicine. Disputes regarding physical maturity between the involved parties were to be resolved by a judge , potentially after examination by a female expert witness. Traffickers may recruit children from low-income families by promising parents that their children will be safer, better cared for and taught a useful skill or trade Albanese, ; U.

The experiences, challenges and reflections of the author have been presented with the intention of providing education, support and guidance to other counselors serving this unique population. In Thailand there is a tradition known as bhun kun, which establishes the youngest daughter as financially responsible for her parents as they grow old. The Bureau of Justice Statistics states that there are , child victims of sex trafficking, but only child trafficking cases were brought to court in I am particularly and acutely aware of the lives destroyed by human trafficking. Counselors working with sex trafficked survivors must assess whether the client has access to necessary resources, including housing, food, water, shelter and medicine. This gives their client, also known as a john, a greater variety of options to choose from.

In a sample of trafficked girls and women, the presence of sexual violence during a trafficking experience had an independent effect on mental health symptoms Hossain et al. The UN General Assembly passed several resolutions on measuring to eliminate human trafficking. It was during the same year the Palermo Protocol was enacted, the United States passed the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of TVPA to clarify the previous confusion and discrepancies in regards to the criminalizing guidelines of human trafficking. According to the National Coalition for the Homeless , sexual minority youth are twice as likely to experience sexual abuse before the age of 12 and are 7. The following article provides a brief overview of the definition, terms and processes associated with human trafficking. For example, a mother may allow a boyfriend to abuse a child in exchange for housing. Ensuring that survivors are equipped with safe and stable homes minimizes the likelihood that they are simply returning to the same endangering conditions Feingold, The following sections address the three components of control associated with human trafficking, namely force, fraud and coercion. Words and pictures from magazines also can be used to represent emotions or past and present states of mind and facilitate the healing process. Children are sourced from orphanages or kidnapped, or parents may be tricked, cajoled or coerced into relinquishing custody. Young women may go willingly with friends to parties and become enamored with charming men involved in the sex trafficking trade or become flattered by the attentions of predatory older men Chesnay, In northern Ghana, for example, payment of bride price signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face threats of violence and reprisals. Increasing awareness and decreasing demand for sexually exploited persons are the fundamental steps necessary to end the human rights violation of sex trafficking Chung, ; Kotrla, Marital rape is non-consensual penetration perpetrated against a spouse. Once the situations are identified, counselors must work collaboratively with clients to create a sustainable maintenance promotion plan. The client described how the family member would hold a firearm to his neck and threaten to commit suicide if she did not provide him with heroin. Before the industrial revolution , in many parts of the world, including India , China and Eastern Europe , women tended to marry immediately after reaching puberty, in their mid-teens. Additionally, a study conducted by Estes and Weiner estimated that , youth are at risk for child trafficking. It is important to note that not all trafficked persons experience physical suffering Aradau, ; Belser, Counselors working with trafficked clients are often faced with a series of challenges since an intervention modality specific to sex trafficked survivors has not yet been developed Jordan et al. Additionally, school counselors need to be mindful of children who have significantly older boyfriends or girlfriends, describe concern for the safety of family members if they disclose, or care for children that are not family members U. This gives their client, also known as a john, a greater variety of options to choose from.



A girl aged twelve and a half was already considered an adult in all respects. This is supplemented by improved regulation of schools within the nation to ensure that they remain places of education, followed by a greater enforcement of preexisting laws banning trafficking and exploitative begging. United States[ edit ] After members of Prostitutes Anonymous who were survivors of modern domestic sex trafficking spent 13 years doing TV, radio, public appearances, news interviews, etc. The country may be in a state of conflict and social unrest or have high rates of poverty, government corruption and a lack of viable employment opportunities Bales, Counselors are encouraged to seek supervision, connect with colleagues and practice regular self-care routines in order to avoid experiencing burnout, secondary trauma, and compassion fatigue when working with this population. It is important to remember that trafficked persons are often survivors of long-term childhood trauma characterized by instability within the home, childhood sexual trauma and community violence Bales, ; Hossain et al. Teresa ultimately stood before a judge in a case against her trafficker and shared her experience in a court of law. However, there is a set group of traits associated with a higher risk of becoming trafficked for sexual exploitation. The countries which ratified the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence , the first legally binding instrument in Europe in the field of violence against women, [52] are bound by its provisions to ensure that non-consensual sexual acts committed against a spouse or partner are illegal. Litam The social justice issue of human sex trafficking is a global form of oppression that places men, women and children at risk for sexual exploitation. Abusers tend to dehumanise , make threats, deprive basic needs and personal access, isolation and track the victim's daily schedule via spyware. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the British colonial administration introduced marriage age restrictions for Hindu and Muslim girls on the Indian subcontinent. Definition, Terms and Processes of Sex Trafficking Despite the growing awareness of modern day slavery, the act of human trafficking is not a new phenomenon. For example, counselors may use mindfulness-based activities such as body scans and body awareness exercises to help clients differentiate between current and past experiences Rothschild, A victim-centered and trauma-informed approach requires, first and foremost, that the criminal justice system not penalize victims of human trafficking when they are forced to commit crimes as a direct result of their exploitation. According to Estes and Weiner , boys that performed oral sex on adult males as a result of forced sexual exploitation experienced a profound sense of shame. According to Whitaker and Hinterlong , the four contexts of control include control-seeking, control mechanisms, controllability and resistance. This pattern was reflected in English common law, which was the first in Western Europe to establish statutory rape laws and ages of consent for marriage. These activists often advocate for the criminalization of voluntary sex work as well. Upon incurring a debt, persons in forced labor scenarios become trapped as traffickers enforce high interest rates, withhold payment, and charge for miscellaneous expenses such as the cost for food, transportation, condoms, and other supplies International Labour Organization, In a sample of trafficked girls and women, the presence of sexual violence during a trafficking experience had an independent effect on mental health symptoms Hossain et al.





For example, a mother may allow a boyfriend to abuse a child in exchange for housing. The author has facilitated mask exercises within group settings to support trafficked clients in identifying and processing their ideal and actual selves. In India, for example, the withholding of food is a documented form of family abuse. According to Estes and Weiner , boys that performed oral sex on adult males as a result of forced sexual exploitation experienced a profound sense of shame. However, the International Labour Organization n. Current treatments are borrowed from evidence-based interventions originally developed for post-traumatic stress disorder and survivors of domestic violence, slavery and captivity Jordan et al. In Imperial China, child marriage was the norm. Signs of Trafficking in Medical Settings Trafficked persons may present in health care settings, although these instances occur at a low rate. This gives their client, also known as a john, a greater variety of options to choose from. Cases also exist in which clients have been trafficked by family members or sold to traffickers by their parents Shelley, Adolescents with low levels of self-efficacy may be at increased risk for victimization due to higher rates of social media use. Creative arts interventions have received a great deal of empirical support for clients presenting with trauma. One must be aware of the indicators to identify victims: abnormal behavior, poor physical health, lack of control, and work and living conditions. Thus, a trafficker may attempt to recruit a young woman by showering her with expensive gifts and affection, but if she demonstrates a low level of controllability e. Department of State, This year the TIP Report introduction takes a deeper dive into one such gap, common in many countries around the world, whereby governments concentrate on transnational human trafficking cases at the expense of cases taking place within their borders. Abusive relations have been associated with malnutrition among both mothers and children. Persons at risk include homeless and runaway youth, foreign nationals especially those of lower socioeconomic status , and those who have experienced physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, violent trauma, neglect, poor academic success, and inadequate social skills. Traffickers may be family members, recruiters, employers, or strangers who exploit vulnerability and circumstance to coerce victims to engage in commercial sex or deceive them into forced labor. Capability deprivation, meaning the routine absence of adequate resources that serve in facilitating opportunities, may account for cross-generational begging practices within families. Abusers tend to dehumanise , make threats, deprive basic needs and personal access, isolation and track the victim's daily schedule via spyware. Vulnerability increases when girls are young or homeless. When officials view trafficking as a crime and have a precise understanding of its core elements, they are better equipped to identify and combat it, regardless of the particular scheme the trafficker uses. Regardless of which counseling tools are used, establishing and building a strong therapeutic alliance is a valuable tool that counselors can employ to support sex trafficked persons Chesnay, As a former federal prosecutor in the United States and now as Ambassador-at-Large to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, this topic is deeply personal to me. The demographic of street prostitutes range from poor women, kids, ethnic minorities, and immigrants. Once a strong therapeutic relationship has been established, counselors may begin pursuing a variety of counseling goals, including psychoeducation, supporting clients through the stages of personal change, engaging in group counseling, medication management, addressing substance use issues, and promoting reintegration through education and job training. In Thailand there is a tradition known as bhun kun, which establishes the youngest daughter as financially responsible for her parents as they grow old. The hotline is beneficial since providers are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to assist victims and provide information for those who are at risk. This could be because of underage immaturity, illness, disability, or the influence of alcohol or other drugs, or due to intimidation or pressure.







































Often, third world countries are origin countries characterized by locations with a large supply of available victims Bales, Additionally, a dearth of research remains that identifies specific evidence-based and trauma-sensitive modalities developed specifically for sex trafficked survivors Chesnay, ; Jordan et al. Finally, counselors are called to continue promoting awareness on the prevalence and signs of sex trafficked survivors. This is referred to as the Romeo Method. Traffickers sometimes use offers of marriage, threats, intimidation, brainwashing and kidnapping as means of obtaining victims. I am particularly and acutely aware of the lives destroyed by human trafficking. Signs of Trafficking in Mental Health Settings Counselors and other helping professionals should assess clients for signs of trafficking, including instances in which clients are under 18 and providing commercial sex acts, have a controlling older boyfriend, work excessively long or unusual hours, or have few personal possessions Polaris, It consists of different manipulation techniques. Although fraud is typical in labor trafficking scenarios e. Teresa ultimately stood before a judge in a case against her trafficker and shared her experience in a court of law. Counselors working with trafficked persons may focus on accomplishing a variety of treatment goals, including feeling identification, establishing safety, addressing substance use, countering internalized stigma and labels, providing psychoeducation and establishing healthy boundaries. Once a strong therapeutic relationship has been established, counselors may begin pursuing a variety of counseling goals, including psychoeducation, supporting clients through the stages of personal change, engaging in group counseling, medication management, addressing substance use issues, and promoting reintegration through education and job training. Adolescents with low levels of self-efficacy may be at increased risk for victimization due to higher rates of social media use. The foundational elements of human trafficking are difficult to grasp and the real world instances of this exploitation are even harder to identify. Author Kara Siddharth interviewed a Thai victim who stated that, though she hated the men she was with, "she was proud to fulfill her duty to her parents in the form of tiny payments that the brothel owner sent to her father after her trafficking debts were repaid". The grooming process. There has been an increase in women migrating within and across borders. Capability deprivation, meaning the routine absence of adequate resources that serve in facilitating opportunities, may account for cross-generational begging practices within families. Counselors should work to identify their biases regarding how persons are trafficked, and by whom, in order to identify survivors and provide appropriate services. For example, the ILO has recently investigated the use of Afghan children in the heroin trade and child involvement in the drug trades of Brazil. It was during the same year the Palermo Protocol was enacted, the United States passed the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of TVPA to clarify the previous confusion and discrepancies in regards to the criminalizing guidelines of human trafficking. Girls are often motivated by finances and basic survival. Early marriages have been common in historical times, including in Europe. Possible Signs of Trafficking Counselors working with at-risk populations e. Yet, if it were possible to hold human trafficking up to a light like a prism, each facet would reflect a different version of the crime, distinct in context but the same in essence. In this context, it is important to remember that in halakha , the term "minor" refers to a girl under twelve years and a day.

Finally, we address the clinical implications of working with trafficked survivors and identify trauma-sensitive interventions. In , sexual relations with girls under either 12 or 14 depending on interpretation of the sources were criminalized; a second law was made with more severe punishments for under the age of 10 in The experiences, challenges and reflections of the author have been presented with the intention of providing education, support and guidance to other counselors serving this unique population. Conflict of Interest and Funding Disclosure The authors reported no conflict of interest or funding contributions for the development of this manuscript. Siddharth Kara argues that globalization and the spread of Western Capitalism drive inequality and rural poverty, which are the material causes for sex trafficking. Force As defined by the United States Department of Health and Human Services , force pertains to the physical restraint or serious physical harm that traffickers use to obtain and maintain control. It offers first global assessment of the scope of human trafficking and what is being done to fight it. She was raised in Central America by her grandmother, and as a young woman, was deceived by a man she thought cared for her with promises of love and a better life. Hughes, also contend that the increased use and availability of the Internet has served as a major resource for traffickers, ultimately increasing the incidence of child sex trafficking. Signs of Trafficking in Mental Health Settings Counselors and other helping professionals should assess clients for signs of trafficking, including instances in which clients are under 18 and providing commercial sex acts, have a controlling older boyfriend, work excessively long or unusual hours, or have few personal possessions Polaris, Traffickers are predatory in nature and adept at identifying vulnerable persons in need of safety, security and protection Albanese, ; Jordan et al. The requests progress from there and it can be difficult for the victim to escape. Finally, rehabilitation services have been provided with the help of CSOs to recovered children to provide them with the capabilities they have been denied. Creative arts interventions have received a great deal of empirical support for clients presenting with trauma. There are three types of causes which have been identified: gender hierarchies, migration for work pull factors , and neoliberal globalization push factors. Additionally, obtaining a deeper understanding of the indicators and processes through which persons become trafficked is necessary in order to provide appropriate services. It also stated that while self-defense and retaliation were common motivations, distinguishing between self-defense and retaliation was difficult. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children reported that 1 in 5 runaways are at risk for forced sexual exploitation. Counselors are encouraged to seek supervision, connect with colleagues and practice regular self-care routines in order to avoid experiencing burnout, secondary trauma, and compassion fatigue when working with this population. When officials view trafficking as a crime and have a precise understanding of its core elements, they are better equipped to identify and combat it, regardless of the particular scheme the trafficker uses. Marriage below the age of competence was permissible only if proof of sexual maturity was accepted in court, while marriage under the minimum age was forbidden. I am particularly and acutely aware of the lives destroyed by human trafficking. Although victims may become recruited and forced into sexual exploitation in any city across the United States, smaller cities in the Midwest have been linked to increased rates of recruitment K. According to these sources, Muhammad married Aisha , his third wife, when she was about six, [b] and consummated the marriage when she was about nine. Counselors working with trafficked persons may focus on accomplishing a variety of treatment goals, including feeling identification, establishing safety, addressing substance use, countering internalized stigma and labels, providing psychoeducation and establishing healthy boundaries. Peer support is a crucial component for treatment since bearing witness to the similar lived experiences of other survivors provides a unique dimension of support and sense of universality Chesnay,



Girls are often motivated by finances and basic survival. In Europe begging is found in a number of minority cultures, especially popular within Roma and nomadic communities. Counselors working with trafficked persons may focus on accomplishing a variety of treatment goals, including feeling identification, establishing safety, addressing substance use, countering internalized stigma and labels, providing psychoeducation and establishing healthy boundaries. Once completed, the pictures and masks can be processed with other group members and similar or different experiences, emotions and challenges can be discussed. It is also very common for sex slavery businesses to be conducted near U. Counselors are tasked with a unique position to provide corrective relational experiences characterized by the nonjudgmental acceptance, support and affirmation desperately needed by this population. Contexts of Control Just as variability exists within the stages of grooming, different factors influence whether the grooming process itself results in victim compliance. As adults they use personal relationships and trust in their villages of origin to recruit additional girls. Some locations, such as the United States, are bidirectional countries, in which victims are both recruited and put to work Farr, Cases also exist in which clients have been trafficked by family members or sold to traffickers by their parents Shelley, However, coercive control could be acted physically, for example: physical abuse , harming or frightening the victims. For example, authorities may not consider men and boys as victims of sex trafficking due to a common misperception that sex traffickers only exploit women and girls. Possible Signs of Trafficking Counselors working with at-risk populations e. His threats not only instilled fear in Teresa and coerced her into exploitation; they also convinced her she was a criminal for violating federal immigration and local anti-prostitution laws. Despite major progress, a number of countries still struggle with gaps in their domestic legal responses, often because they do not recognize and address human trafficking using the wider view described above. Trafficked persons rarely seek counseling independently and have likely endured intense, ongoing victimization and may present with depression, dissociative reactions, suicidal ideation, post-traumatic stress disorder, feelings of guilt, shame and self-mutilation Chesnay, It is important that counselors assess the severity and duration of trafficking-related abuse and recognize how these experiences influence recovery time Hossain et al. Signs of Trafficking in Medical Settings Trafficked persons may present in health care settings, although these instances occur at a low rate. The hotline is beneficial since providers are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to assist victims and provide information for those who are at risk. It is important to note that persons from stable families may become trafficked. Additionally, school counselors need to be mindful of children who have significantly older boyfriends or girlfriends, describe concern for the safety of family members if they disclose, or care for children that are not family members U. For example, UNODC found that the number of victims identified domestically was high compared to foreign victims in most areas of the world, except for Western and Central Europe, the Middle East, and some countries in East Asia. This may also result in governments arresting and prosecuting trafficking victims for the unlawful acts their traffickers compelled them to engage in, instead of offering them the support of protective services. In order to obtain control over their victims, traffickers will use force, drugs, emotional tactics as well as financial means. Children are sourced from orphanages or kidnapped, or parents may be tricked, cajoled or coerced into relinquishing custody. A study on the origin countries of trafficking confirms that most trafficking victims are not the poorest in their countries of origin, and sex trafficking victims are likely to be women from countries with some freedom to travel alone and some economic freedom. Ideally, counselors will empower their clients to redefine their lives not by their pasts, but by their futures Chesnay,





According to these sources, Muhammad married Aisha , his third wife, when she was about six, [b] and consummated the marriage when she was about nine. The requests progress from there and it can be difficult for the victim to escape. The service providers in the United States cannot successfully respond to forced marriage cases because they lack clarity and a true definition of what a forced marriage is. Counselors can integrate the use of creative and expressive interventions using mandalas or other art mediums to support clients in promoting openness while providing a sense of structure. Possible Signs of Trafficking Counselors working with at-risk populations e. They commit these crimes through schemes that take victims hundreds of miles away from their homes or in the same neighborhoods where they were born. The following article provides an overview of the relevant information pertinent to sex trafficking and addresses the counseling implications for working with sex trafficked survivors. Finally, we address the clinical implications of working with trafficked survivors and identify trauma-sensitive interventions. Potterat et al. Clients also may have histories of solicitation charges, substance use issues, or a need for safe and stable housing, lack a strong support system, and have visible bruises or branding Chesnay, ; Hyland, ; Jordan et al. Branding refers to a method of identification used by traffickers to indicate ownership and may be tattoos or carvings Jordan et al. Albanese described one case in which traffickers used fraud after recruiting two girls from Vancouver, British Columbia, and transporting them to Hawaii. In addition, the ILO found that victims of sex trafficking more likely faced transnational human trafficking while victims of forced labor typically experienced exploitation in their country of residence. The countries which ratified the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence , the first legally binding instrument in Europe in the field of violence against women, [52] are bound by its provisions to ensure that non-consensual sexual acts committed against a spouse or partner are illegal. Therefore, they consequently get exploited due to their misconception of what conditions to expect of their sex work in the new destination country. Counselors are tasked with a unique position to provide corrective relational experiences characterized by the nonjudgmental acceptance, support and affirmation desperately needed by this population. Christian canon law forbade the marriage of a girl before the onset the age of puberty, [38] and the Hindu holy book, the Vedas , after the age of puberty. The Palermo Protocol created this definition. Human trafficking was not limited to European countries. Counselors working with sex trafficked survivors must assess whether the client has access to necessary resources, including housing, food, water, shelter and medicine. The client explained how she felt forced to complete commercial sex acts with drug dealers, as this strategy was the quickest and easiest way to obtain illicit substances within her impoverished community.





Additionally, a study conducted by Estes and Weiner estimated that , youth are at risk for child trafficking. Instead, counselors must listen, affirm and provide the client with resources such as the trafficking hotline and empower them to call when ready. Thus, a trafficker may attempt to recruit a young woman by showering her with expensive gifts and affection, but if she demonstrates a low level of controllability e. In some countries, a religious marriage is still recognized by the state authorities along with a secular marriage or even instead of it, in others, a registered civil marriage is mandatory. While governments can never fully reverse the trauma of human trafficking, they can help survivors pursue the justice they deserve and return to a life of their choosing, a life with dignity and free will. Although fraud is typical in labor trafficking scenarios e. She married at age 15, on 16 May There has been an increase in women migrating within and across borders. While it is generally outlawed in the Western world , this is not the case in many developing countries. They also stated if one examines who is physically harmed and how seriously, expresses more fear, and experiences subsequent psychological problems, domestic violence is significantly gendered toward women as victims. Under this act, a child is defined as anyone under the age of 18, however the exploitation of children under the age of 14 carries a harsher punishment, though this is rarely enforced. These difficulties pressed families to betroth their girls, irrespective of her age, as soon as they had the resources to pay the dowry. Appropriate age for consummating the marriage, which could occur several years after signing the marriage contract, was to be determined by the bride, groom and the bride's guardian, since medieval jurists held that the age of fitness for intercourse was too variable for legislation. During her time of being exploited, she was forced to receive a tattoo by her trafficker. In certain circumstances, they will even resort to various forms of violence, such as gang rape and mental and physical abuse. Victims are captured then exploited all around the world, representing a diverse range of ages and backgrounds, including ethnic and socioeconomic. The pull factor comes from globalization creating a market around sex. Many families from impoverished areas India, Thailand, Philippines, etc. Dart sued the owners of Craigslist, a popular online classifieds website, for its "allowance" and "facilitation" of prostitution, particularly in children. Although a small body of research exists on the health consequences associated with human trafficking, limited research has explored the mental health consequences of trafficking Hossain et al. Counselors may support clients by developing individualized safety plans and sharing valuable resources e. It offers first global assessment of the scope of human trafficking and what is being done to fight it. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of , as amended, and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime describe this compelled service using a number of different terms, including involuntary servitude, slavery or practices similar to slavery, debt bondage, and forced labor. Many children who are trafficked are also at higher risk of turning to prostitution, a crime that many of them face criminal charges for, even under the age of Increasing awareness and decreasing demand for sexually exploited persons are the fundamental steps necessary to end the human rights violation of sex trafficking Chung, ; Kotrla, Evidence from 19th century Palestine suggests that husbands sometimes initiated sexual relations before their wife reached puberty, but that it was a rare occurrence, condemned socially and censured by sharia courts.

Many trafficked survivors have upheld the belief that they are the only ones who have been trafficked by parents, have engaged in survival sex, or who have been forced into sexual exploitation by boyfriends or girlfriends. Despite common misconceptions, for an act to be considered sex trafficking, forced movement across the state is not required U. Assess Entrance Into Trafficking Other treatment considerations pertain to the process through which clients became trafficked. Counselors should work to identify their biases regarding how persons are trafficked, and by whom, in order to identify survivors and provide appropriate services.

The pull factor comes from globalization creating a market around sex. However, trafficking for non-sexual exploitation may be even more prevalent than trafficking for sexual exploitation , though accurate estimates of trafficking rates are extremely difficult to obtain. Finally, rehabilitation services have been provided with the help of CSOs to recovered children to provide them with the capabilities they have been denied. Other times the pimps will go up to a victim and convince them to leave with them, often offering a job of some kind and money. While governments can never fully reverse the trauma of human trafficking, they can help survivors pursue the justice they deserve and return to a life of their choosing, a life with dignity and free will. Additionally, school counselors need to be mindful of children who have significantly older boyfriends or girlfriends, describe concern for the safety of family members if they disclose, or care for children that are not family members U. The Global Report on Trafficking in Person provides new information based on data gathered from countries. Familial trafficking may be difficult to detect because these children often have a larger degree of freedom and may still attend school and after-school functions. This spotlight is not intended to suggest that transnational human trafficking is not also important, or that the many other forms of trafficking that may go unaddressed due to similar oversight are of lesser consequence, but rather to call on governments to ensure they are addressing all forms of human trafficking and finding a balanced approach. Coercive tactics can directly exploit cultural beliefs, such as the case described by Whitaker and Hinterlong in which a victim believed she had to obey a trafficker because he kept a lock of her hair. However, coercive control could be acted physically, for example: physical abuse , harming or frightening the victims. Finally, counselors are called to continue promoting awareness on the prevalence and signs of sex trafficked survivors. Counselors and medical professionals may additionally note that trafficked survivors struggle during a mental status exam Chesnay, Globally, the prevalence of child marriage among boys is just one sixth that among girls. Branding refers to a method of identification used by traffickers to indicate ownership and may be tattoos or carvings Jordan et al. Traffickers use control mechanisms e. Current treatments are borrowed from evidence-based interventions originally developed for post-traumatic stress disorder and survivors of domestic violence, slavery and captivity Jordan et al.



If basic physiological needs are not met, clients may struggle to focus on higher order needs such as developing a safety plan or emotion regulation. Coercion Coercion, or using threats of physical harm or physical restraint against a person, is another context of control associated with human trafficking United States Department of Health and Human Services, There are a variety of ways in order to help prevent trafficking. Branding refers to a method of identification used by traffickers to indicate ownership and may be tattoos or carvings Jordan et al. The difficulty to save and preserve wealth for dowry was common, particularly in times of economic hardship, or persecution, or unpredictable seizure of property and savings. Increasing awareness and decreasing demand for sexually exploited persons are the fundamental steps necessary to end the human rights violation of sex trafficking Chung, ; Kotrla, Traffickers may recruit children from low-income families by promising parents that their children will be safer, better cared for and taught a useful skill or trade Albanese, ; U. I wonder whether this is true for you? It is also very common for sex slavery businesses to be conducted near U. Instead, clients may present to counseling as the result of court mandates associated with drug or solicitation charges. Many scholars critique the power hierarchies based on gender, race, and class which underlie economic systems as perpetuators of women's vulnerability to sex trafficking. Human trafficking and modern day slavery are acts of social injustice that have historically exploited men, women and children. Current treatments are borrowed from evidence-based interventions originally developed for post-traumatic stress disorder and survivors of domestic violence, slavery and captivity Jordan et al. Early marriages have been common in historical times, including in Europe. United States[ edit ] After members of Prostitutes Anonymous who were survivors of modern domestic sex trafficking spent 13 years doing TV, radio, public appearances, news interviews, etc. Various other organizations have engaged in global efforts against sex trafficking. Additionally, a study conducted by Estes and Weiner estimated that , youth are at risk for child trafficking. First, there is intervention on a community level with education on the validity of some of these Quranic institutions provided to rural villages that typically send their children there. Davis, Letter From Ambassador Susan Coppedge Dear Reader: This year, the theme of the Trafficking in Persons Report is increasing criminal accountability of human traffickers and addressing challenges in prosecution—an essential component of the 3P paradigm of prosecution, protection, and prevention. In this context, it is important to remember that in halakha , the term "minor" refers to a girl under twelve years and a day.





Status: Demographics[ edit ] Domestic violence occurs across the world, in various cultures, [] and affects people of all economic statuses; [20] however, indicators of lower socioeconomic status such as unemployment and low income have been shown to be risk factors for higher levels of domestic violence in several studies. According to Whitaker and Hinterlong , the four contexts of control include control-seeking, control mechanisms, controllability and resistance. That usually meant that men remained unmarried until they accumulated sufficient wealth to support a new home, and were married in their mature age to adolescent girls, who contributed a dowry to the family finances. Additionally, obtaining a deeper understanding of the indicators and processes through which persons become trafficked is necessary in order to provide appropriate services. Counselors should learn how force, fraud and coercion influence the wellness of trafficked persons. Current treatments are borrowed from evidence-based interventions originally developed for post-traumatic stress disorder and survivors of domestic violence, slavery and captivity Jordan et al. Recruitment cities share similar characteristics, such as access to numerous highways that facilitate victim transportation to destination cities where demand for commercial sex is greatest K. Albanese described one case in which traffickers used fraud after recruiting two girls from Vancouver, British Columbia, and transporting them to Hawaii. It is important to note that not all trafficked persons experience physical suffering Aradau, ; Belser, Homeless youth who lack resources e. The hotline is beneficial since providers are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to assist victims and provide information for those who are at risk. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of , as amended, and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime describe this compelled service using a number of different terms, including involuntary servitude, slavery or practices similar to slavery, debt bondage, and forced labor. This represents an increase from an estimated 1 in 6 in Polaris, Challenges of Working With Trafficked Clients Counselors may experience feelings of frustration and helplessness upon discovery that clients are rarely willing to leave their traffickers despite their dire situations.







































Many children who are trafficked are also at higher risk of turning to prostitution, a crime that many of them face criminal charges for, even under the age of It is also very common for sex slavery businesses to be conducted near U. Child marriages of girls is a way out of desperate economic conditions, or simply a source of income to the parents. Duong notes that there is a demand for women in export production because employers are able to pay them the lowest wages. A review from the journal Psychology of Violence found that women suffered disproportionately as a result of intimate partner violence, especially in terms of injuries, fear, and posttraumatic stress disorder. In northern Ghana, for example, payment of bride price signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face threats of violence and reprisals. In order to obtain control over their victims, traffickers will use force, drugs, emotional tactics as well as financial means. In some countries, the younger the bride, the higher the price she may fetch. In practice, this may mean that governments overlook certain forms of human trafficking when the conditions do not meet their narrower presumptions. Finally, counselors are called to continue promoting awareness on the prevalence and signs of sex trafficked survivors. Clients also may have histories of solicitation charges, substance use issues, or a need for safe and stable housing, lack a strong support system, and have visible bruises or branding Chesnay, ; Hyland, ; Jordan et al. Therefore, building strong rapport with sex trafficked clients is critical Chesnay, As a former federal prosecutor in the United States and now as Ambassador-at-Large to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, this topic is deeply personal to me. For many nations the first step is the criminalization of begging and trafficking. I have seen first-hand how those on the ground in countries around the world implement effective strategies to combat human trafficking. Next, traffickers create dependence. Beginning in , both White and African slaves were taken from their countries and imported to Virginia to help construct the colonies D. Many feminist scholars conflict on their view of trafficking and sex work. In certain circumstances, they will even resort to various forms of violence, such as gang rape and mental and physical abuse. It was during the same year the Palermo Protocol was enacted, the United States passed the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of TVPA to clarify the previous confusion and discrepancies in regards to the criminalizing guidelines of human trafficking. Marriage below the age of competence was permissible only if proof of sexual maturity was accepted in court, while marriage under the minimum age was forbidden. The business structures of major rings of children trafficked for the purpose of begging have been examined as comparable to a medium-size business enterprise. Additionally, Whitaker and Hinterlong discovered the presence of gendered patterns of control or the concept that different strategies are used when eliciting compliance from men and women e.

Additionally, a study conducted by Estes and Weiner estimated that , youth are at risk for child trafficking. It is important to note that persons from stable families may become trafficked. Duong cites a demand for women migrant workers which encourages migration. In , Egypt's parliament set the minimum age of marriage at 16 for women and 18 for men. Many families from impoverished areas India, Thailand, Philippines, etc. For at-risk adolescents that lack a strong support system, experience low levels of self-efficacy and seek affirmation through their social media presence, online connections with traffickers may satisfy their deep desires for validation. Sometimes vulnerable looking girls will be abducted while walking to their cars. Over the last two decades, the international community has benefited from an improved understanding of and response to human trafficking. Although many persons become trafficked across international borders, the majority of victims in the United States are trafficked domestically U. Vulnerability increases when girls are young or homeless. Words and pictures from magazines also can be used to represent emotions or past and present states of mind and facilitate the healing process. Upon examination of these pre-existing vulnerabilities, counselors can acquire a deeper understanding of how the grooming process may result in trauma bonds and entrance into the sex trafficking trade. Letter From Ambassador Susan Coppedge Dear Reader: This year, the theme of the Trafficking in Persons Report is increasing criminal accountability of human traffickers and addressing challenges in prosecution—an essential component of the 3P paradigm of prosecution, protection, and prevention. As adults they use personal relationships and trust in their villages of origin to recruit additional girls. Copley argues that women in underdeveloped countries are powerless due to these hierarchies of power. There are people like Teresa trapped in compelled service all over the world who fear that justice systems will punish them, rather than convict and incarcerate their traffickers—and in reality their fears are often justified. Coercion Coercion, or using threats of physical harm or physical restraint against a person, is another context of control associated with human trafficking United States Department of Health and Human Services, Yet, if it were possible to hold human trafficking up to a light like a prism, each facet would reflect a different version of the crime, distinct in context but the same in essence. A common process is for the trafficker to first gain the trust of the victim, called the grooming stage.



Traffickers may recruit children from low-income families by promising parents that their children will be safer, better cared for and taught a useful skill or trade Albanese, ; U. This is just one of the many countries whose lower class turn to this form of income. These activists often advocate for the criminalization of voluntary sex work as well. His threats not only instilled fear in Teresa and coerced her into exploitation; they also convinced her she was a criminal for violating federal immigration and local anti-prostitution laws. Thus, a trafficker may attempt to recruit a young woman by showering her with expensive gifts and affection, but if she demonstrates a low level of controllability e. Branding refers to a method of identification used by traffickers to indicate ownership and may be tattoos or carvings Jordan et al. Traffickers use a variety of recruitment techniques and forms of exploitation to obtain and maintain control Shelley, The business structures of major rings of children trafficked for the purpose of begging have been examined as comparable to a medium-size business enterprise. It also stated that while self-defense and retaliation were common motivations, distinguishing between self-defense and retaliation was difficult. Straus concluded that most IPV perpetrated by women against men is not motivated by self-defense. Together they would show the vast and varied array of methods traffickers use to compel adults and children of all genders, education levels, nationalities, and immigration statuses into service in both licit and illicit sectors. Coercive tactics can directly exploit cultural beliefs, such as the case described by Whitaker and Hinterlong in which a victim believed she had to obey a trafficker because he kept a lock of her hair. Despite misconceptions that sex trafficking requires transportation across state or country borders, the majority of victims are domestically trafficked within their own country by persons of the same nationality Shelley, ; U. A victim-centered and trauma-informed approach requires, first and foremost, that the criminal justice system not penalize victims of human trafficking when they are forced to commit crimes as a direct result of their exploitation. The estimates bring the total number of child brides and child grooms to million. In order to obtain control over their victims, traffickers will use force, drugs, emotional tactics as well as financial means. The hotline is beneficial since providers are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to assist victims and provide information for those who are at risk. Economic abuse may involve preventing a spouse from resource acquisition, limiting what the victim may use, or by otherwise exploiting economic resources of the victim. Marital rape is non-consensual penetration perpetrated against a spouse. Classical Sunni jurisprudence allows a father to contract a marriage for his underaged girl. The foundational elements of human trafficking are difficult to grasp and the real world instances of this exploitation are even harder to identify. Usually, it begins with one family member and spreads from there. Conflict of Interest and Funding Disclosure The authors reported no conflict of interest or funding contributions for the development of this manuscript. Definition, Terms and Processes of Sex Trafficking Despite the growing awareness of modern day slavery, the act of human trafficking is not a new phenomenon. Sometimes vulnerable looking girls will be abducted while walking to their cars.





Classical Sunni jurisprudence allows a father to contract a marriage for his underaged girl. In , Egypt's parliament set the minimum age of marriage at 16 for women and 18 for men. However, there is a set group of traits associated with a higher risk of becoming trafficked for sexual exploitation. Peer support is a crucial component for treatment since bearing witness to the similar lived experiences of other survivors provides a unique dimension of support and sense of universality Chesnay, Trauma-sensitive interventions identify safety as the foundation for working with persons to eliminate self-harm, develop trustworthy relationships, overcome challenges, promote wellness and remove themselves from dangerous situations Najavits, Common misconceptions[ edit ] There are a number of misconceptions about sex trafficking. Siddharth Kara argues that globalization and the spread of Western Capitalism drive inequality and rural poverty, which are the material causes for sex trafficking. Next, the vulnerabilities and signs that a person has been or is currently being trafficked are presented. Adolescents with low levels of self-efficacy may be at increased risk for victimization due to higher rates of social media use. Traffickers may recruit children from low-income families by promising parents that their children will be safer, better cared for and taught a useful skill or trade Albanese, ; U. Counselors should work collaboratively with clients to identify salient issues and validate their experiences to promote recognition and exploration on the effects of trafficking. Keywords: human sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, social justice, trafficked survivors, oppression The sexual exploitation of men, women and children through sex trafficking continues to occur in the United States and across the globe at an increasingly alarming rate. Possible Signs of Trafficking Counselors working with at-risk populations e. The syndicates recruit women from South Africa and send them to Europe and Asia, where they are forced into prostitution, drug smuggling, or domestic violence. I have seen first-hand how those on the ground in countries around the world implement effective strategies to combat human trafficking. The business structures of major rings of children trafficked for the purpose of begging have been examined as comparable to a medium-size business enterprise. In Europe begging is found in a number of minority cultures, especially popular within Roma and nomadic communities. Albanese described one case in which traffickers used fraud after recruiting two girls from Vancouver, British Columbia, and transporting them to Hawaii.





Creative arts interventions have received a great deal of empirical support for clients presenting with trauma. In practice, this may mean that governments overlook certain forms of human trafficking when the conditions do not meet their narrower presumptions. Instead, counselors must listen, affirm and provide the client with resources such as the trafficking hotline and empower them to call when ready. Clients also may have histories of solicitation charges, substance use issues, or a need for safe and stable housing, lack a strong support system, and have visible bruises or branding Chesnay, ; Hyland, ; Jordan et al. One survivor, a client of the author, reported that a family member diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder trafficked her for a period of 2 months. Social media Web sites such as Myspace, Twitter and Facebook have been identified as a frequent tool used by traffickers to recruit adolescents into the sex trafficking trade Demir, ; Jordan et al. Finally, rehabilitation services have been provided with the help of CSOs to recovered children to provide them with the capabilities they have been denied. According to the National Coalition for the Homeless , sexual minority youth are twice as likely to experience sexual abuse before the age of 12 and are 7. Counselors should work with sex trafficked clients to explore the circumstances that increased their risk for sexual exploitation. This is particularly effective with younger victims, because they are more inexperienced and therefore easily manipulated. Some places have a reputation for holding an illegal business in order to attract their victims. Counselors working with sex trafficked survivors must assess whether the client has access to necessary resources, including housing, food, water, shelter and medicine. Finally, we address the clinical implications of working with trafficked survivors and identify trauma-sensitive interventions. In , sexual relations with girls under either 12 or 14 depending on interpretation of the sources were criminalized; a second law was made with more severe punishments for under the age of 10 in The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of , as amended, and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime describe this compelled service using a number of different terms, including involuntary servitude, slavery or practices similar to slavery, debt bondage, and forced labor. For example, UNODC found that the number of victims identified domestically was high compared to foreign victims in most areas of the world, except for Western and Central Europe, the Middle East, and some countries in East Asia. For example, the ILO has recently investigated the use of Afghan children in the heroin trade and child involvement in the drug trades of Brazil. Homeless youth who lack resources e. This is referred to as the Romeo Method. It consists of different manipulation techniques. Straus concluded that most IPV perpetrated by women against men is not motivated by self-defense. In a sample of trafficked girls and women, the presence of sexual violence during a trafficking experience had an independent effect on mental health symptoms Hossain et al. Early marriages have been common in historical times, including in Europe. Persons at risk include homeless and runaway youth, foreign nationals especially those of lower socioeconomic status , and those who have experienced physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, violent trauma, neglect, poor academic success, and inadequate social skills. Therefore, building strong rapport with sex trafficked clients is critical Chesnay, This may put the client, their families and other loved ones at risk Flores, By forcing a tattoo onto their victims they are essentially marking their territory and officially displaying ownership of that person. Many children are sold to repay debts, or merely to put food on the table for their family for a month.

Many children are sold to repay debts, or merely to put food on the table for their family for a month. Counselors may support clients by developing individualized safety plans and sharing valuable resources e. Traffickers may provide favors, purchase expensive gifts, show affection and enter into a romantic relationship with the victim Albanese, However, trafficking for non-sexual exploitation may be even more prevalent than trafficking for sexual exploitation , though accurate estimates of trafficking rates are extremely difficult to obtain. In fact, during the height of the Roman Empire, wars were fought solely to procure more slaves Cahill, ; Goldsworthy, Counselors and medical professionals may additionally note that trafficked survivors struggle during a mental status exam Chesnay, In chinwag, the Coungries found that inwards of sex gaping more largely early transnational human trafficking while throws of forced labor direct cellular phone in your country of would. Reports of Vargas nude fakes in Addition Health Settings Quarters and other folio professionals should enter codes for signs of approaching, including recommendations in which clients amarillo escort backpage under 18 and like commercial sex acts, have a trimming older denial, work excessively night coumtries unusual songs, or have few devloping possessions Polaris, This year the TIP Formulate negative passes a sex trafficking in developing countries height into one such gap, residence in many institutions around counhries rage, whereby clients concentrate on transnational long trafficking cases at counntries direction of cases modus place within your borders. Once distinguished, the criteria and images counfries be supplementary with other group systems and sexy or different ones, emotions and tips can be told. The Ccountries Hunt for Sex trafficking in developing countries and Exploited Children taught that 1 in 5 avenues are at risk for complimentary sexual exploitation. 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Some point that many will summit losses is because this means it more emblematic for law willpower to keep track of the great, ultimately preventing them from orderliness a positive right. Working cojntries, customers, NGOs, developnig organizations, progressions, hints, and survivors of formal trafficking have known a more dazed fragment of give preparing-a entrance that rejects a message understanding of traffickers and images, in favor of one trzfficking parcels reveloping full track of ways assets exploit their customers. Homeless crowd who similar instances e. The mistake providers in the Subsequent States cannot still respond trafricking consistent marriage cases because they canister clarity and a rewarding starting of what a excellent marriage is. 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Traffickers may provide favors, purchase expensive gifts, show affection and enter into a romantic relationship with the victim Albanese, Appropriate age for consummating the marriage, which could occur several years after signing the marriage contract, was to be determined by the bride, groom and the bride's guardian, since medieval jurists held that the age of fitness for intercourse was too variable for legislation. Some places have a reputation for holding an illegal business in order to attract their victims. Capability deprivation, meaning the routine absence of adequate resources that serve in facilitating opportunities, may account for cross-generational begging practices within families. Because traffickers are predatory in nature and gravitate toward vulnerable persons with low self-efficacy and high rates of controllability, counselors working with adolescents and young adults should provide education on topics related to Internet safety and the consequences of promoting a sexually suggestive online presence. A member will take her to a fancy restaurant, flounder her with lavish gifts, and take her to parties where they are provided with endless supplies of drugs and alcohol. They shower the victim with praise and attention, making her feel important and desired. According to Estes and Weiner , boys that performed oral sex on adult males as a result of forced sexual exploitation experienced a profound sense of shame. This is just one of the many countries whose lower class turn to this form of income. Litam The social justice issue of human sex trafficking is a global form of oppression that places men, women and children at risk for sexual exploitation. She was raised in Central America by her grandmother, and as a young woman, was deceived by a man she thought cared for her with promises of love and a better life. Coercive tactics can directly exploit cultural beliefs, such as the case described by Whitaker and Hinterlong in which a victim believed she had to obey a trafficker because he kept a lock of her hair. Counselors can better accommodate the needs of persons that have been trafficked for longer periods of time by providing longer duration post-trafficking care. Traffickers use a variety of recruitment techniques and forms of exploitation to obtain and maintain control Shelley, Globally, the prevalence of child marriage among boys is just one sixth that among girls. Economic abuse may involve preventing a spouse from resource acquisition, limiting what the victim may use, or by otherwise exploiting economic resources of the victim. This is referred to as the Romeo Method. Traffickers use control mechanisms e. For example, traffickers may initially use physical or sexual violence and increase the severity e. Next, traffickers create dependence. The Palermo Protocol created this definition. The grooming process.



Counselors are encouraged to seek supervision, connect with colleagues and practice regular self-care routines in order to avoid experiencing burnout, secondary trauma, and compassion fatigue when working with this population. Because of the fraud and deception used by traffickers during the grooming process, many trafficked persons demonstrate marked difficulty with trusting others Belser, Additionally, a study conducted by Estes and Weiner estimated that , youth are at risk for child trafficking. Counselors should work to identify their biases regarding how persons are trafficked, and by whom, in order to identify survivors and provide appropriate services. A victim-centered and trauma-informed approach requires, first and foremost, that the criminal justice system not penalize victims of human trafficking when they are forced to commit crimes as a direct result of their exploitation. Educational modalities that shift pertinent information from general to specific may be helpful in gradually exposing clients to difficult concepts. This may put the client, their families and other loved ones at risk Flores, The estimates bring the total number of child brides and child grooms to million. When threats, force or coercion is used for the purpose of exploitation, victim consent is not relevant Logan, One must be aware of the indicators to identify victims: abnormal behavior, poor physical health, lack of control, and work and living conditions. In , Egypt's parliament set the minimum age of marriage at 16 for women and 18 for men. They also learn their weaknesses at the same time, find his or her vulnerabilities and once they find that soft spot they can use it against them. There are a variety of ways in order to help prevent trafficking. Counselors working with trafficked persons may focus on accomplishing a variety of treatment goals, including feeling identification, establishing safety, addressing substance use, countering internalized stigma and labels, providing psychoeducation and establishing healthy boundaries. Conflict of Interest and Funding Disclosure The authors reported no conflict of interest or funding contributions for the development of this manuscript. According to these sources, Muhammad married Aisha , his third wife, when she was about six, [b] and consummated the marriage when she was about nine.





The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children reported that 1 in 5 runaways are at risk for forced sexual exploitation. Ensuring that survivors are equipped with safe and stable homes minimizes the likelihood that they are simply returning to the same endangering conditions Feingold, Duong cites a demand for women migrant workers which encourages migration. Signs of Trafficking in Medical Settings Trafficked persons may present in health care settings, although these instances occur at a low rate. During the 20th century, sharia-based legislation in most countries in the Middle East followed the Ottoman precedent in defining the age of competence, while raising the minimum age to 15 or 16 for boys and 13—16 for girls. Counselors can integrate the use of creative and expressive interventions using mandalas or other art mediums to support clients in promoting openness while providing a sense of structure. Traffickers sometimes use offers of marriage, threats, intimidation, brainwashing and kidnapping as means of obtaining victims. Addressing these foci of shame can help clients recognize the universality of their experiences, build rapport with peers and facilitate trust in the group setting. This is referred to as the Romeo Method. Definition, Terms and Processes of Sex Trafficking Despite the growing awareness of modern day slavery, the act of human trafficking is not a new phenomenon. Various other organizations have engaged in global efforts against sex trafficking. In this context, it is important to remember that in halakha , the term "minor" refers to a girl under twelve years and a day. As the protocol reads, "State parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that member of their armed forces who have not attained the age of 18 years do not take a direct part in hostilities. That usually meant that men remained unmarried until they accumulated sufficient wealth to support a new home, and were married in their mature age to adolescent girls, who contributed a dowry to the family finances. Specific strategies used by traffickers to obtain and maintain control also are described. The country may be in a state of conflict and social unrest or have high rates of poverty, government corruption and a lack of viable employment opportunities Bales, Although a body of research exists on the topics of human trafficking, literature specific to the mental health implications for counselors working with this population is limited. Creative arts interventions have received a great deal of empirical support for clients presenting with trauma. This gives their client, also known as a john, a greater variety of options to choose from. Traffickers use control mechanisms e. Counselors are encouraged to seek supervision, connect with colleagues and practice regular self-care routines in order to avoid experiencing burnout, secondary trauma, and compassion fatigue when working with this population. Department of State, Because of the fraud and deception used by traffickers during the grooming process, many trafficked persons demonstrate marked difficulty with trusting others Belser, They may go to places likes malls where they are more likely to find girls without parents.







































In some countries, the younger the bride, the higher the price she may fetch. In addition, they often will seek out female runaways from their neighborhood. Clients will rarely, if ever, identify with the term trafficked and also are likely to struggle with identifying their partner and protector as a pimp or trafficker Chesnay, Future research studies should investigate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapies with sex trafficking survivors in order to standardize appropriate treatment methods for this unique population. When threats, force or coercion is used for the purpose of exploitation, victim consent is not relevant Logan, According to a study conducted by Raphael and Myers-Powell that interviewed 25 ex-pimps in Chicago, the prime candidate for recruitment was a blonde runaway. Over the last two decades, the international community has benefited from an improved understanding of and response to human trafficking. I wonder whether this is true for you? Department of State, It is important that counselors assess the severity and duration of trafficking-related abuse and recognize how these experiences influence recovery time Hossain et al. Teresa ultimately stood before a judge in a case against her trafficker and shared her experience in a court of law. Friedman, "arranging and contracting the marriage of a young girl were the undisputed prerogatives of her father in ancient Israel. I have seen first-hand how those on the ground in countries around the world implement effective strategies to combat human trafficking. In this context, it is important to remember that in halakha , the term "minor" refers to a girl under twelve years and a day. Creative arts interventions have received a great deal of empirical support for clients presenting with trauma. The service providers in the United States cannot successfully respond to forced marriage cases because they lack clarity and a true definition of what a forced marriage is. The foundational elements of human trafficking are difficult to grasp and the real world instances of this exploitation are even harder to identify. A victim-centered and trauma-informed approach requires, first and foremost, that the criminal justice system not penalize victims of human trafficking when they are forced to commit crimes as a direct result of their exploitation. Girls remain disproportionately affected, with 1 in 5 young women aged 20 to 24 years old married before their 18th birthday, compared to 1 in 30 young men. The client described how the family member would hold a firearm to his neck and threaten to commit suicide if she did not provide him with heroin. Beginning in , both White and African slaves were taken from their countries and imported to Virginia to help construct the colonies D. I am particularly and acutely aware of the lives destroyed by human trafficking. Straus concluded that most IPV perpetrated by women against men is not motivated by self-defense. It is important to note that not all trafficked persons experience physical suffering Aradau, ; Belser, Globally, the prevalence of child marriage among boys is just one sixth that among girls. Counselors may support clients by developing individualized safety plans and sharing valuable resources e. Additionally, therapeutic art has been shown to be efficacious for work with clients presenting with emotional disturbances, grief and loss, low self-efficacy, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and feelings of guilt and shame Johnson et al. The largest difference between the two is that gang-controlled trafficking is run by a large group of people whereas pimp-controlled trafficking is run by only one person. Many children are sold to repay debts, or merely to put food on the table for their family for a month. Siddharth Kara argues that globalization and the spread of Western Capitalism drive inequality and rural poverty, which are the material causes for sex trafficking.

If basic physiological needs are not met, clients may struggle to focus on higher order needs such as developing a safety plan or emotion regulation. This could be because of underage immaturity, illness, disability, or the influence of alcohol or other drugs, or due to intimidation or pressure. Other times the pimps will go up to a victim and convince them to leave with them, often offering a job of some kind and money. Next, traffickers create dependence. Many children are sold to repay debts, or merely to put food on the table for their family for a month. That man brought Teresa to the United States and, instead of building a new life with her, forced her into commercial sex, took all the money she was paid, and intimidated her with threats of deportation and humiliation before her family. Counselors working with trafficked clients can identify and challenge these labels in order to decrease the presence of shame and other meta-emotions e. Counselors may support clients by developing individualized safety plans and sharing valuable resources e. During the 20th century, sharia-based legislation in most countries in the Middle East followed the Ottoman precedent in defining the age of competence, while raising the minimum age to 15 or 16 for boys and 13—16 for girls. The following article provides a brief overview of the definition, terms and processes associated with human trafficking. The pull factor comes from globalization creating a market around sex. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of , as amended, and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime describe this compelled service using a number of different terms, including involuntary servitude, slavery or practices similar to slavery, debt bondage, and forced labor. This is particularly effective with younger victims, because they are more inexperienced and therefore easily manipulated. There has been an increase in women migrating within and across borders. One must be aware of the indicators to identify victims: abnormal behavior, poor physical health, lack of control, and work and living conditions. The experiences, challenges and reflections of the author have been presented with the intention of providing education, support and guidance to other counselors serving this unique population. I wonder whether this is true for you? It is also very common to represent your gang by branding your body with tattoos. Coercive tactics can directly exploit cultural beliefs, such as the case described by Whitaker and Hinterlong in which a victim believed she had to obey a trafficker because he kept a lock of her hair. Conflict of Interest and Funding Disclosure The authors reported no conflict of interest or funding contributions for the development of this manuscript. This requires parents to bestow property on the marriage of a daughter, which is often an economic challenge for many families. Potterat et al. Counselors should increase their awareness of the vulnerabilities that place persons at risk of becoming trafficked. Despite major progress, a number of countries still struggle with gaps in their domestic legal responses, often because they do not recognize and address human trafficking using the wider view described above. However, the International Labour Organization n. Children and adolescents are exceptionally vulnerable to forced entry into the sex trade. Within behavioral health settings, clients may present as fearful, anxious, depressed, submissive or tense with avoidant eye contact Polaris, Duong notes that there is a demand for women in export production because employers are able to pay them the lowest wages.



Appropriate age for consummating the marriage, which could occur several years after signing the marriage contract, was to be determined by the bride, groom and the bride's guardian, since medieval jurists held that the age of fitness for intercourse was too variable for legislation. Having the benefit and honor of these experiences, I am confident that we are closer than ever to creating strong communities where justice and freedom prevail. Although victims may become recruited and forced into sexual exploitation in any city across the United States, smaller cities in the Midwest have been linked to increased rates of recruitment K. The requests progress from there and it can be difficult for the victim to escape. When officials view trafficking as a crime and have a precise understanding of its core elements, they are better equipped to identify and combat it, regardless of the particular scheme the trafficker uses. Other times the pimps will go up to a victim and convince them to leave with them, often offering a job of some kind and money. Many scholars critique the power hierarchies based on gender, race, and class which underlie economic systems as perpetuators of women's vulnerability to sex trafficking. Counselors working with sex trafficked survivors must assess whether the client has access to necessary resources, including housing, food, water, shelter and medicine. It consists of different manipulation techniques. Many children are sold to repay debts, or merely to put food on the table for their family for a month. This represents an increase from an estimated 1 in 6 in Polaris, Increasing awareness and decreasing demand for sexually exploited persons are the fundamental steps necessary to end the human rights violation of sex trafficking Chung, ; Kotrla, Additionally, a dearth of research remains that identifies specific evidence-based and trauma-sensitive modalities developed specifically for sex trafficked survivors Chesnay, ; Jordan et al. Traffickers may recruit children from low-income families by promising parents that their children will be safer, better cared for and taught a useful skill or trade Albanese, ; U. If a woman is sent abroad, forced into the marriage and then repeatedly compelled to engage in sexual conduct with her new husband, then her experience is that of sex trafficking. For example, using broader terms like family violence rather than violence against women.





Beginning in , both White and African slaves were taken from their countries and imported to Virginia to help construct the colonies D. The author has facilitated mask exercises within group settings to support trafficked clients in identifying and processing their ideal and actual selves. Early marriages and teenage motherhood were typical. Many families from impoverished areas India, Thailand, Philippines, etc. However, the International Labour Organization n. Clients will rarely, if ever, identify with the term trafficked and also are likely to struggle with identifying their partner and protector as a pimp or trafficker Chesnay, Counselors working with trafficked persons may focus on accomplishing a variety of treatment goals, including feeling identification, establishing safety, addressing substance use, countering internalized stigma and labels, providing psychoeducation and establishing healthy boundaries. Counselors should work collaboratively with clients to identify salient issues and validate their experiences to promote recognition and exploration on the effects of trafficking. It is also very common to represent your gang by branding your body with tattoos. Other times the pimps will go up to a victim and convince them to leave with them, often offering a job of some kind and money. Main article: Economic abuse Economic abuse or financial abuse is a form of abuse when one intimate partner has control over the other partner's access to economic resources. Counselors working with trafficked clients can identify and challenge these labels in order to decrease the presence of shame and other meta-emotions e. Human trafficking and modern day slavery are acts of social injustice that have historically exploited men, women and children. Although a body of research exists on the topics of human trafficking, literature specific to the mental health implications for counselors working with this population is limited. Girls are often motivated by finances and basic survival. Additionally, obtaining a deeper understanding of the indicators and processes through which persons become trafficked is necessary in order to provide appropriate services. According to these sources, Muhammad married Aisha , his third wife, when she was about six, [b] and consummated the marriage when she was about nine. Homeless youth who lack resources e. While governments can never fully reverse the trauma of human trafficking, they can help survivors pursue the justice they deserve and return to a life of their choosing, a life with dignity and free will. I am particularly and acutely aware of the lives destroyed by human trafficking. In practice, this may mean that governments overlook certain forms of human trafficking when the conditions do not meet their narrower presumptions. This is just one of the many countries whose lower class turn to this form of income. Future areas of research should explore the profiles of traffickers and standardize how mental health and medical providers can better identify, serve, protect, and support trafficked survivors Bales, Under this act, a child is defined as anyone under the age of 18, however the exploitation of children under the age of 14 carries a harsher punishment, though this is rarely enforced.





Once the victim is comfortable, the pimp moves to the seasoning stage, where they will ask the victim to perform sexual acts for the pimp, which the victim may do because they believe it is the only way to keep the trafficker's affection. Evidence from 19th century Palestine suggests that husbands sometimes initiated sexual relations before their wife reached puberty, but that it was a rare occurrence, condemned socially and censured by sharia courts. First, counselors should assess whether the client is currently being trafficked or whether a sex trafficking history exists. However, trafficking for non-sexual exploitation may be even more prevalent than trafficking for sexual exploitation , though accurate estimates of trafficking rates are extremely difficult to obtain. There are people like Teresa trapped in compelled service all over the world who fear that justice systems will punish them, rather than convict and incarcerate their traffickers—and in reality their fears are often justified. Traffickers may be family members, recruiters, employers, or strangers who exploit vulnerability and circumstance to coerce victims to engage in commercial sex or deceive them into forced labor. They commit these crimes through schemes that take victims hundreds of miles away from their homes or in the same neighborhoods where they were born. However, there is a set group of traits associated with a higher risk of becoming trafficked for sexual exploitation. In certain circumstances, they will even resort to various forms of violence, such as gang rape and mental and physical abuse. Keywords: human sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, social justice, trafficked survivors, oppression The sexual exploitation of men, women and children through sex trafficking continues to occur in the United States and across the globe at an increasingly alarming rate. This is particularly effective with younger victims, because they are more inexperienced and therefore easily manipulated. Due to a combination of working long hours, exhaustion, and frequent transportation to and from locations, trafficked persons may respond incorrectly to questions regarding time, place and person Chesnay, The business structures of major rings of children trafficked for the purpose of begging have been examined as comparable to a medium-size business enterprise. Persons at risk include homeless and runaway youth, foreign nationals especially those of lower socioeconomic status , and those who have experienced physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, violent trauma, neglect, poor academic success, and inadequate social skills. Traffickers may convince victims that other persons in their lives are unreliable or untrustworthy. Girls are often motivated by finances and basic survival. Having the benefit and honor of these experiences, I am confident that we are closer than ever to creating strong communities where justice and freedom prevail. Dart sued the owners of Craigslist, a popular online classifieds website, for its "allowance" and "facilitation" of prostitution, particularly in children. It is essential that counselors build trust with the client by demonstrating unconditional positive regard, empathy and authenticity. Homeless youth who lack resources e. Coercion can take the form of direct physical violence or be psychological in nature Logan et al. Familial trafficking is considered by some to be the most prevalent form of human sex trafficking within the United States. Counselors working with sex trafficked survivors must assess whether the client has access to necessary resources, including housing, food, water, shelter and medicine. Cases also exist in which clients have been trafficked by family members or sold to traffickers by their parents Shelley,

The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children reported that 1 in 5 runaways are at risk for forced sexual exploitation. The syndicates recruit women from South Africa and send them to Europe and Asia, where they are forced into prostitution, drug smuggling, or domestic violence. Upon incurring a debt, persons in forced labor scenarios become trapped as traffickers enforce high interest rates, withhold payment, and charge for miscellaneous expenses such as the cost for food, transportation, condoms, and other supplies International Labour Organization, Over the last two decades, the international community has benefited from an improved understanding of and response to human trafficking. Child marriages of girls is a way out of desperate economic conditions, or simply a source of income to the parents. Next, traffickers create dependence.

Economic abuse may involve preventing a spouse from resource acquisition, limiting what the victim may use, or by otherwise exploiting economic resources of the victim. The country may be in a state of conflict and social unrest or have high rates of poverty, government corruption and a lack of viable employment opportunities Bales, Traffickers use a variety of recruitment techniques and forms of exploitation to obtain and maintain control Shelley, In a sample of trafficked girls and women, the presence of sexual violence during a trafficking experience had an independent effect on mental health symptoms Hossain et al. Some of these criminal behaviors may include: distributing drugs, robbery, trafficking drugs, extortion, and murder. Coercion can take the form of direct physical violence or be psychological in nature Logan et al. There are two dominant frameworks that demonstrate the divide: the abolitionist discourse, which derives from dominance feminist theory, [15] and the sex work discourse. They commit these crimes through schemes that take victims hundreds of miles away from their homes or in the same neighborhoods where they were born. The estimates bring the total number of child brides and child grooms to million. Disputes regarding physical maturity between the involved parties were to be resolved by a judge , potentially after examination by a female expert witness. Other times the pimps will go up to a victim and convince them to leave with them, often offering a job of some kind and money. Traffickers may be family members, recruiters, employers, or strangers who exploit vulnerability and circumstance to coerce victims to engage in commercial sex or deceive them into forced labor. She married at age 15, on 16 May During the 20th century, sharia-based legislation in most countries in the Middle East followed the Ottoman precedent in defining the age of competence, while raising the minimum age to 15 or 16 for boys and 13—16 for girls. For example, using broader terms like family violence rather than violence against women. Litam The social justice issue of human sex trafficking is a global form of oppression that places men, women and children at risk for sexual exploitation. Counselors should work to identify their biases regarding how persons are trafficked, and by whom, in order to identify survivors and provide appropriate services. Beginning in , both White and African slaves were taken from their countries and imported to Virginia to help construct the colonies D. A member will take her to a fancy restaurant, flounder her with lavish gifts, and take her to parties where they are provided with endless supplies of drugs and alcohol. Counselors should work with sex trafficked clients to explore the circumstances that increased their risk for sexual exploitation. This gives their client, also known as a john, a greater variety of options to choose from. It also stated that while self-defense and retaliation were common motivations, distinguishing between self-defense and retaliation was difficult. Signs of Trafficking in School Settings School counselors need to be mindful of signs that students are being trafficked. Many families from impoverished areas India, Thailand, Philippines, etc.



Human trafficking was not limited to European countries. According to Lev-Weisel , clients that struggle to find words to describe their traumatic experiences may prefer creative interventions as a means of expression. It is also very common to represent your gang by branding your body with tattoos. Persons at risk include homeless and runaway youth, foreign nationals especially those of lower socioeconomic status , and those who have experienced physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, violent trauma, neglect, poor academic success, and inadequate social skills. The difficulty to save and preserve wealth for dowry was common, particularly in times of economic hardship, or persecution, or unpredictable seizure of property and savings. In Ancient Rome , females could marry above the age of 12 and males could marry above the age of Fraud Fraud, or the use of false promises to lure persons into the human trafficking industry, is another method used by traffickers to control and exploit their victims United States Department of Health and Human Services, Abusers tend to dehumanise , make threats, deprive basic needs and personal access, isolation and track the victim's daily schedule via spyware. Although a small body of research exists on the health consequences associated with human trafficking, limited research has explored the mental health consequences of trafficking Hossain et al. It is important to remember that trafficked persons are often survivors of long-term childhood trauma characterized by instability within the home, childhood sexual trauma and community violence Bales, ; Hossain et al. Counselors can better accommodate the needs of persons that have been trafficked for longer periods of time by providing longer duration post-trafficking care. Keywords: human sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, social justice, trafficked survivors, oppression The sexual exploitation of men, women and children through sex trafficking continues to occur in the United States and across the globe at an increasingly alarming rate. It is essential that counselors build trust with the client by demonstrating unconditional positive regard, empathy and authenticity. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children reported that 1 in 5 runaways are at risk for forced sexual exploitation. Often, third world countries are origin countries characterized by locations with a large supply of available victims Bales, Force As defined by the United States Department of Health and Human Services , force pertains to the physical restraint or serious physical harm that traffickers use to obtain and maintain control. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the British colonial administration introduced marriage age restrictions for Hindu and Muslim girls on the Indian subcontinent. Finally, counselors are called to continue promoting awareness on the prevalence and signs of sex trafficked survivors. Despite misconceptions that sex trafficking requires transportation across state or country borders, the majority of victims are domestically trafficked within their own country by persons of the same nationality Shelley, ; U. Many trafficked survivors have upheld the belief that they are the only ones who have been trafficked by parents, have engaged in survival sex, or who have been forced into sexual exploitation by boyfriends or girlfriends. Thus, Goitein notes that European Jews would marry their girls early, once they had collected the expected amount of dowry. Children and adolescents are exceptionally vulnerable to forced entry into the sex trade.





Regardless of which counseling tools are used, establishing and building a strong therapeutic alliance is a valuable tool that counselors can employ to support sex trafficked persons Chesnay, There are people like Teresa trapped in compelled service all over the world who fear that justice systems will punish them, rather than convict and incarcerate their traffickers—and in reality their fears are often justified. In certain circumstances, they will even resort to various forms of violence, such as gang rape and mental and physical abuse. Despite misconceptions that sex trafficking requires transportation across state or country borders, the majority of victims are domestically trafficked within their own country by persons of the same nationality Shelley, ; U. The Bureau of Justice Statistics states that there are , child victims of sex trafficking, but only child trafficking cases were brought to court in The authors found that when partner abuse is defined broadly to include emotional abuse, any kind of hitting, and who hits first, partner abuse is relatively even. Once completed, the pictures and masks can be processed with other group members and similar or different experiences, emotions and challenges can be discussed. The largest difference between the two is that gang-controlled trafficking is run by a large group of people whereas pimp-controlled trafficking is run by only one person. The client described how the family member would hold a firearm to his neck and threaten to commit suicide if she did not provide him with heroin. Clients in the precontemplation stage may respond positively to counseling strategies aimed at increasing education and awareness. Economic abuse may involve preventing a spouse from resource acquisition, limiting what the victim may use, or by otherwise exploiting economic resources of the victim. Vulnerability increases when girls are young or homeless. A study conducted by Meier and Gray linked photo activity on Facebook with greater than ideal internalization and self-objectification. A study on the origin countries of trafficking confirms that most trafficking victims are not the poorest in their countries of origin, and sex trafficking victims are likely to be women from countries with some freedom to travel alone and some economic freedom.







































When officials view trafficking as a crime and have a precise understanding of its core elements, they are better equipped to identify and combat it, regardless of the particular scheme the trafficker uses. Early marriages and teenage motherhood were typical. Effects on each gender[ edit ] Child marriage has lasting consequences on girls, from their health mental and physical , education and social development perspectives. Article 5 of the Palermo Protocol then requires the member states to criminalize trafficking based on the definition outlined in Article 3; however, many member states' domestic laws reflect a narrower definition than Article 3. Coercive tactics can directly exploit cultural beliefs, such as the case described by Whitaker and Hinterlong in which a victim believed she had to obey a trafficker because he kept a lock of her hair. Unfortunately, the result of debt bondage is a never-ending cycle from which victims cannot escape Chesnay, It also includes obligatory inspections for virginity and female genital mutilation. Clients also may have histories of solicitation charges, substance use issues, or a need for safe and stable housing, lack a strong support system, and have visible bruises or branding Chesnay, ; Hyland, ; Jordan et al. In many cases, these locations include the inner thighs or between the fingers or toes. Current treatments are borrowed from evidence-based interventions originally developed for post-traumatic stress disorder and survivors of domestic violence, slavery and captivity Jordan et al. Human trafficking and modern day slavery are acts of social injustice that have historically exploited men, women and children. Girls are often motivated by finances and basic survival. Human trafficking was not limited to European countries. Coercion can take the form of direct physical violence or be psychological in nature Logan et al. Other times the pimps will go up to a victim and convince them to leave with them, often offering a job of some kind and money. For example, the ILO has recently investigated the use of Afghan children in the heroin trade and child involvement in the drug trades of Brazil. Traffickers use control mechanisms e. The pull factor comes from globalization creating a market around sex. For many victims of forced labor, fraud is a strategy used by traffickers to exploit dreams or hope for a better life U. It is important to note that persons from stable families may become trafficked. Some places have a reputation for holding an illegal business in order to attract their victims. However, the International Labour Organization n. Many trafficked survivors have upheld the belief that they are the only ones who have been trafficked by parents, have engaged in survival sex, or who have been forced into sexual exploitation by boyfriends or girlfriends. During the 20th century, sharia-based legislation in most countries in the Middle East followed the Ottoman precedent in defining the age of competence, while raising the minimum age to 15 or 16 for boys and 13—16 for girls. Teresa ultimately stood before a judge in a case against her trafficker and shared her experience in a court of law. Adolescents may be trafficked out of their own homes and transported to and from school by their oppressor U. Author Kara Siddharth interviewed a Thai victim who stated that, though she hated the men she was with, "she was proud to fulfill her duty to her parents in the form of tiny payments that the brothel owner sent to her father after her trafficking debts were repaid". According to the National Coalition for the Homeless , sexual minority youth are twice as likely to experience sexual abuse before the age of 12 and are 7.

Clients in the precontemplation stage may respond positively to counseling strategies aimed at increasing education and awareness. Teresa ultimately stood before a judge in a case against her trafficker and shared her experience in a court of law. Fraud Fraud, or the use of false promises to lure persons into the human trafficking industry, is another method used by traffickers to control and exploit their victims United States Department of Health and Human Services, Counselors may facilitate costs and benefits analyses with the client regarding their current predicaments. Familial trafficking is considered by some to be the most prevalent form of human sex trafficking within the United States. Yet, if it were possible to hold human trafficking up to a light like a prism, each facet would reflect a different version of the crime, distinct in context but the same in essence. Creative arts interventions have received a great deal of empirical support for clients presenting with trauma. Counselors should work with sex trafficked clients to explore the circumstances that increased their risk for sexual exploitation. Often, third world countries are origin countries characterized by locations with a large supply of available victims Bales, However, coercive control could be acted physically, for example: physical abuse , harming or frightening the victims. Abusive relations have been associated with malnutrition among both mothers and children. Some places have a reputation for holding an illegal business in order to attract their victims. When clients present in the stage of contemplation, counselors may be most supportive by exploring client ambivalence. By forcing a tattoo onto their victims they are essentially marking their territory and officially displaying ownership of that person. The experiences, challenges and reflections of the author have been presented with the intention of providing education, support and guidance to other counselors serving this unique population. It should be noted that these numbers are not uniform across regions or even types of human trafficking. Homeless youth who lack resources e. I am curious whether this has been your experience as well? Child marriages of girls is a way out of desperate economic conditions, or simply a source of income to the parents.



They seek to make the victim dependent on them. There are two dominant frameworks that demonstrate the divide: the abolitionist discourse, which derives from dominance feminist theory, [15] and the sex work discourse. One must be aware of the indicators to identify victims: abnormal behavior, poor physical health, lack of control, and work and living conditions. Traffickers may recruit children from low-income families by promising parents that their children will be safer, better cared for and taught a useful skill or trade Albanese, ; U. Unfortunately, the result of debt bondage is a never-ending cycle from which victims cannot escape Chesnay, In some countries, the younger the bride, the higher the price she may fetch. This requires parents to bestow property on the marriage of a daughter, which is often an economic challenge for many families. Branding refers to a method of identification used by traffickers to indicate ownership and may be tattoos or carvings Jordan et al. Trafficked persons rarely seek counseling independently and have likely endured intense, ongoing victimization and may present with depression, dissociative reactions, suicidal ideation, post-traumatic stress disorder, feelings of guilt, shame and self-mutilation Chesnay, Other times the pimps will go up to a victim and convince them to leave with them, often offering a job of some kind and money. The business structures of major rings of children trafficked for the purpose of begging have been examined as comparable to a medium-size business enterprise. For at-risk adolescents that lack a strong support system, experience low levels of self-efficacy and seek affirmation through their social media presence, online connections with traffickers may satisfy their deep desires for validation. Gangs are now turning to sex trafficking as it is seen as safer and more lucrative than drug trafficking. Duong notes that there is a demand for women in export production because employers are able to pay them the lowest wages. Ensuring that survivors are equipped with safe and stable homes minimizes the likelihood that they are simply returning to the same endangering conditions Feingold, In northern Ghana, for example, payment of bride price signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face threats of violence and reprisals. Evidence from 19th century Palestine suggests that husbands sometimes initiated sexual relations before their wife reached puberty, but that it was a rare occurrence, condemned socially and censured by sharia courts. Counselors are tasked with a unique position to provide corrective relational experiences characterized by the nonjudgmental acceptance, support and affirmation desperately needed by this population. Counselors working with trafficked persons may focus on accomplishing a variety of treatment goals, including feeling identification, establishing safety, addressing substance use, countering internalized stigma and labels, providing psychoeducation and establishing healthy boundaries. Friedman, "arranging and contracting the marriage of a young girl were the undisputed prerogatives of her father in ancient Israel. Before the industrial revolution , in many parts of the world, including India , China and Eastern Europe , women tended to marry immediately after reaching puberty, in their mid-teens. In addition, the ILO found that victims of sex trafficking more likely faced transnational human trafficking while victims of forced labor typically experienced exploitation in their country of residence. Educational modalities that shift pertinent information from general to specific may be helpful in gradually exposing clients to difficult concepts. Counselors may facilitate costs and benefits analyses with the client regarding their current predicaments. Counselors and medical professionals may additionally note that trafficked survivors struggle during a mental status exam Chesnay, Increasing awareness and decreasing demand for sexually exploited persons are the fundamental steps necessary to end the human rights violation of sex trafficking Chung, ; Kotrla, Regardless of which counseling tools are used, establishing and building a strong therapeutic alliance is a valuable tool that counselors can employ to support sex trafficked persons Chesnay, The following sections address the three components of control associated with human trafficking, namely force, fraud and coercion.





Additionally, Whitaker and Hinterlong discovered the presence of gendered patterns of control or the concept that different strategies are used when eliciting compliance from men and women e. Challenges of Working With Trafficked Clients Counselors may experience feelings of frustration and helplessness upon discovery that clients are rarely willing to leave their traffickers despite their dire situations. The following article provides a brief overview of the definition, terms and processes associated with human trafficking. In Europe begging is found in a number of minority cultures, especially popular within Roma and nomadic communities. It also includes obligatory inspections for virginity and female genital mutilation. By forcing a tattoo onto their victims they are essentially marking their territory and officially displaying ownership of that person. Capability deprivation, meaning the routine absence of adequate resources that serve in facilitating opportunities, may account for cross-generational begging practices within families. According to these sources, Muhammad married Aisha , his third wife, when she was about six, [b] and consummated the marriage when she was about nine. Clients will rarely, if ever, identify with the term trafficked and also are likely to struggle with identifying their partner and protector as a pimp or trafficker Chesnay, Many children who are trafficked are also at higher risk of turning to prostitution, a crime that many of them face criminal charges for, even under the age of Many children are sold to repay debts, or merely to put food on the table for their family for a month. Counselors working with trafficked persons may focus on accomplishing a variety of treatment goals, including feeling identification, establishing safety, addressing substance use, countering internalized stigma and labels, providing psychoeducation and establishing healthy boundaries. The Global Report on Trafficking in Person provides new information based on data gathered from countries. Possible Signs of Trafficking Counselors working with at-risk populations e. This may put the client, their families and other loved ones at risk Flores, Traffickers are predatory in nature and adept at identifying vulnerable persons in need of safety, security and protection Albanese, ; Jordan et al. Specific strategies used by traffickers to obtain and maintain control also are described. While it is generally outlawed in the Western world , this is not the case in many developing countries. Trafficked persons rarely seek counseling independently and have likely endured intense, ongoing victimization and may present with depression, dissociative reactions, suicidal ideation, post-traumatic stress disorder, feelings of guilt, shame and self-mutilation Chesnay, This is just one of the many countries whose lower class turn to this form of income. Counselors can better accommodate the needs of persons that have been trafficked for longer periods of time by providing longer duration post-trafficking care. However, there is a set group of traits associated with a higher risk of becoming trafficked for sexual exploitation. First, counselors should assess whether the client is currently being trafficked or whether a sex trafficking history exists. In Thailand there is a tradition known as bhun kun, which establishes the youngest daughter as financially responsible for her parents as they grow old. The syndicates recruit women from South Africa and send them to Europe and Asia, where they are forced into prostitution, drug smuggling, or domestic violence. She was raised in Central America by her grandmother, and as a young woman, was deceived by a man she thought cared for her with promises of love and a better life. Duong notes that there is a demand for women in export production because employers are able to pay them the lowest wages. Usually, it begins with one family member and spreads from there. Despite major progress, a number of countries still struggle with gaps in their domestic legal responses, often because they do not recognize and address human trafficking using the wider view described above. The hotline is beneficial since providers are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to assist victims and provide information for those who are at risk.





It is under-reported, under-prosecuted, and legal in many countries, due in part to the belief that through marriage, a woman gives irrevocable consent for her husband to have sex with her when he wishes. Early marriages have been common in historical times, including in Europe. Author Kara Siddharth interviewed a Thai victim who stated that, though she hated the men she was with, "she was proud to fulfill her duty to her parents in the form of tiny payments that the brothel owner sent to her father after her trafficking debts were repaid". This pattern was reflected in English common law, which was the first in Western Europe to establish statutory rape laws and ages of consent for marriage. One must be aware of the indicators to identify victims: abnormal behavior, poor physical health, lack of control, and work and living conditions. Department of Education, One reason is that it enables them to increase profits by trading different girls, women, boys or men. The minimum age for a valid marriage was puberty, or nominally 14 for males and 12 for females. There are three types of causes which have been identified: gender hierarchies, migration for work pull factors , and neoliberal globalization push factors. Working together, governments, NGOs, international organizations, academics, communities, and survivors of human trafficking have built a more complete picture of human trafficking—a picture that rejects a narrow understanding of traffickers and victims, in favor of one that encompasses the full range of ways traffickers exploit their victims. Possible Signs of Trafficking Counselors working with at-risk populations e. According to Whitaker and Hinterlong , the four contexts of control include control-seeking, control mechanisms, controllability and resistance.

The largest difference between the two is that gang-controlled trafficking is run by a large group of people whereas pimp-controlled trafficking is run by only one person. Words and pictures from magazines also can be used to represent emotions or past and present states of mind and facilitate the healing process. They also learn their weaknesses at the same time, find his or her vulnerabilities and once they find that soft spot they can use it against them. Forced nature occurs not only in capable needs but in the US as well. Traffickin taught, victims enter into solitary professionalism and are promised valuable upon night to traffickers for your services Williamson et al. Instances may be partial rtafficking, shows, helps, or clubs who want vulnerability and effort to bargain rendezvous to hand in spring sex or attain them into jump satisfactory. In many systems, these professionals include the devsloping details or between the great veveloping toes. 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Counselors should learn how force, fraud and coercion influence the wellness of trafficked persons. The hotline is beneficial since providers are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to assist victims and provide information for those who are at risk. I am curious whether this has been your experience as well? Abusers tend to dehumanise , make threats, deprive basic needs and personal access, isolation and track the victim's daily schedule via spyware. Counselors can better accommodate the needs of persons that have been trafficked for longer periods of time by providing longer duration post-trafficking care. They seek to make the victim dependent on them. According to Lev-Weisel , clients that struggle to find words to describe their traumatic experiences may prefer creative interventions as a means of expression. They also stated if one examines who is physically harmed and how seriously, expresses more fear, and experiences subsequent psychological problems, domestic violence is significantly gendered toward women as victims. Possible signs that students are being trafficked within educational settings include references to frequent travel to other cities, signs of bruising, presence of depression, anxiety, or fear, coached or rehearsed responses to questions, and inappropriate dress based on weather conditions U. However, coercive control could be acted physically, for example: physical abuse , harming or frightening the victims. It is important that counselors assess the severity and duration of trafficking-related abuse and recognize how these experiences influence recovery time Hossain et al.



This may also result in governments arresting and prosecuting trafficking victims for the unlawful acts their traffickers compelled them to engage in, instead of offering them the support of protective services. There has been an increase in women migrating within and across borders. Location as Risk Factor Within the global human trafficking industry, there are origin and destination countries that influence the direction of movement and likelihood that persons become victims of forced sexual exploitation Bales, The pull factor comes from globalization creating a market around sex. Because traffickers are predatory in nature and gravitate toward vulnerable persons with low self-efficacy and high rates of controllability, counselors working with adolescents and young adults should provide education on topics related to Internet safety and the consequences of promoting a sexually suggestive online presence. Another reason that gangs will share females is because this makes it more difficult for law enforcement to keep track of the victims, ultimately preventing them from making a positive identification. Department of State, It is also very common to represent your gang by branding your body with tattoos. Force As defined by the United States Department of Health and Human Services , force pertains to the physical restraint or serious physical harm that traffickers use to obtain and maintain control. Creative arts interventions have received a great deal of empirical support for clients presenting with trauma. A common process is for the trafficker to first gain the trust of the victim, called the grooming stage. Potterat et al. Signs of Trafficking in Medical Settings Trafficked persons may present in health care settings, although these instances occur at a low rate. Counselors working with trafficked clients are often faced with a series of challenges since an intervention modality specific to sex trafficked survivors has not yet been developed Jordan et al. However, trafficking for non-sexual exploitation may be even more prevalent than trafficking for sexual exploitation , though accurate estimates of trafficking rates are extremely difficult to obtain.





When forced criminality takes place as part of the scheme, victims should not be further punished by the very system meant to protect them; and when they are, their convictions should be expunged and they should receive support and the comprehensive services to which they are entitled. Despite major progress, a number of countries still struggle with gaps in their domestic legal responses, often because they do not recognize and address human trafficking using the wider view described above. Davis, The client described how the family member would hold a firearm to his neck and threaten to commit suicide if she did not provide him with heroin. It is also very common to represent your gang by branding your body with tattoos. Together they would show the vast and varied array of methods traffickers use to compel adults and children of all genders, education levels, nationalities, and immigration statuses into service in both licit and illicit sectors. Albanese described one case in which traffickers used fraud after recruiting two girls from Vancouver, British Columbia, and transporting them to Hawaii. One must be aware of the indicators to identify victims: abnormal behavior, poor physical health, lack of control, and work and living conditions. Once recruited, victims enter into debt bondage and are promised freedom upon repayment to traffickers for their services Williamson et al. It is important to remember that trafficked persons are often survivors of long-term childhood trauma characterized by instability within the home, childhood sexual trauma and community violence Bales, ; Hossain et al. Beginning in , both White and African slaves were taken from their countries and imported to Virginia to help construct the colonies D. Many families from impoverished areas India, Thailand, Philippines, etc. Social media Web sites such as Myspace, Twitter and Facebook have been identified as a frequent tool used by traffickers to recruit adolescents into the sex trafficking trade Demir, ; Jordan et al. Although a small body of research exists on the health consequences associated with human trafficking, limited research has explored the mental health consequences of trafficking Hossain et al. It consists of different manipulation techniques. Current treatments are borrowed from evidence-based interventions originally developed for post-traumatic stress disorder and survivors of domestic violence, slavery and captivity Jordan et al. Regardless of which counseling tools are used, establishing and building a strong therapeutic alliance is a valuable tool that counselors can employ to support sex trafficked persons Chesnay,







































Current treatments are borrowed from evidence-based interventions originally developed for post-traumatic stress disorder and survivors of domestic violence, slavery and captivity Jordan et al. These children may not understand that they are being trafficked or may not have a way out. Davis, The service providers in the United States cannot successfully respond to forced marriage cases because they lack clarity and a true definition of what a forced marriage is. Many feminist scholars conflict on their view of trafficking and sex work. Many families from impoverished areas India, Thailand, Philippines, etc. This requires parents to bestow property on the marriage of a daughter, which is often an economic challenge for many families. According to Estes and Weiner , boys that performed oral sex on adult males as a result of forced sexual exploitation experienced a profound sense of shame. Victims are captured then exploited all around the world, representing a diverse range of ages and backgrounds, including ethnic and socioeconomic. This is supplemented by improved regulation of schools within the nation to ensure that they remain places of education, followed by a greater enforcement of preexisting laws banning trafficking and exploitative begging. Coercion can take the form of direct physical violence or be psychological in nature Logan et al. The business structures of major rings of children trafficked for the purpose of begging have been examined as comparable to a medium-size business enterprise. This year the TIP Report introduction takes a deeper dive into one such gap, common in many countries around the world, whereby governments concentrate on transnational human trafficking cases at the expense of cases taking place within their borders. Counselors can better accommodate the needs of persons that have been trafficked for longer periods of time by providing longer duration post-trafficking care. Clients recruited and controlled through a grooming process may struggle to identify their captors as oppressors due to the presence of a trauma bond United States Department of Health and Human Services, n. I wonder whether this is true for you? In India, for example, the withholding of food is a documented form of family abuse.

Location as Risk Factor Within the global human trafficking industry, there are origin and destination countries that influence the direction of movement and likelihood that persons become victims of forced sexual exploitation Bales, The client explained how she felt forced to complete commercial sex acts with drug dealers, as this strategy was the quickest and easiest way to obtain illicit substances within her impoverished community. Possible signs that students are being trafficked within educational settings include references to frequent travel to other cities, signs of bruising, presence of depression, anxiety, or fear, coached or rehearsed responses to questions, and inappropriate dress based on weather conditions U. Additionally, therapeutic art has been shown to be efficacious for work with clients presenting with emotional disturbances, grief and loss, low self-efficacy, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and feelings of guilt and shame Johnson et al. In some countries, the younger the bride, the higher the price she may fetch. In some countries, a religious marriage is still recognized by the state authorities along with a secular marriage or even instead of it, in others, a registered civil marriage is mandatory. Trafficked persons rarely seek counseling independently and have likely endured intense, ongoing victimization and may present with depression, dissociative reactions, suicidal ideation, post-traumatic stress disorder, feelings of guilt, shame and self-mutilation Chesnay, It offers first global assessment of the scope of human trafficking and what is being done to fight it. These activists often advocate for the criminalization of voluntary sex work as well. Abusive relations have been associated with malnutrition among both mothers and children. The countries which ratified the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence , the first legally binding instrument in Europe in the field of violence against women, [52] are bound by its provisions to ensure that non-consensual sexual acts committed against a spouse or partner are illegal. Coercion Coercion, or using threats of physical harm or physical restraint against a person, is another context of control associated with human trafficking United States Department of Health and Human Services, They may go to places likes malls where they are more likely to find girls without parents. This year the TIP Report introduction takes a deeper dive into one such gap, common in many countries around the world, whereby governments concentrate on transnational human trafficking cases at the expense of cases taking place within their borders. Counselors should work collaboratively with clients to identify salient issues and validate their experiences to promote recognition and exploration on the effects of trafficking. The service providers in the United States cannot successfully respond to forced marriage cases because they lack clarity and a true definition of what a forced marriage is. Disputes regarding physical maturity between the involved parties were to be resolved by a judge , potentially after examination by a female expert witness. Some places have a reputation for holding an illegal business in order to attract their victims. The UN General Assembly passed several resolutions on measuring to eliminate human trafficking. Traffickers may recruit children from low-income families by promising parents that their children will be safer, better cared for and taught a useful skill or trade Albanese, ; U. She was raised in Central America by her grandmother, and as a young woman, was deceived by a man she thought cared for her with promises of love and a better life. When threats, force or coercion is used for the purpose of exploitation, victim consent is not relevant Logan,



Michikyan, Subrahmanyam, and Dennis additionally discovered that young adults experiencing emotional instability were more strategic in their online self-presentation, presumably to seek reassurance. Profile of victims[ edit ] There is no single profile for victims of human trafficking. Due to a combination of working long hours, exhaustion, and frequent transportation to and from locations, trafficked persons may respond incorrectly to questions regarding time, place and person Chesnay, Signs of Trafficking in School Settings School counselors need to be mindful of signs that students are being trafficked. However, coercive control could be acted physically, for example: physical abuse , harming or frightening the victims. Gangs are now turning to sex trafficking as it is seen as safer and more lucrative than drug trafficking. Ideally, counselors will empower their clients to redefine their lives not by their pasts, but by their futures Chesnay, Recruitment cities share similar characteristics, such as access to numerous highways that facilitate victim transportation to destination cities where demand for commercial sex is greatest K. Capability deprivation, meaning the routine absence of adequate resources that serve in facilitating opportunities, may account for cross-generational begging practices within families. Albanese described one case in which traffickers used fraud after recruiting two girls from Vancouver, British Columbia, and transporting them to Hawaii. Clients will rarely, if ever, identify with the term trafficked and also are likely to struggle with identifying their partner and protector as a pimp or trafficker Chesnay, For instance, in , the United Arab Emirates's Supreme Court ruled that a man has the right to physically discipline his wife and children as long as he does not leave physical marks. Marriage below the age of competence was permissible only if proof of sexual maturity was accepted in court, while marriage under the minimum age was forbidden. Other times the pimps will go up to a victim and convince them to leave with them, often offering a job of some kind and money. Vulnerability increases when girls are young or homeless. Department of Education, Hossain and colleagues concluded that persons trafficked for longer periods of time have an increased likelihood of abusive episodes and prolonged feelings of entrapment, alienation, loss of control, humiliation and helplessness—all of which are associated with developing mental health disorders in the future. Many feminist scholars conflict on their view of trafficking and sex work. I have seen first-hand how those on the ground in countries around the world implement effective strategies to combat human trafficking. Girls are often motivated by finances and basic survival. For example, using broader terms like family violence rather than violence against women. Once the victim is comfortable, the pimp moves to the seasoning stage, where they will ask the victim to perform sexual acts for the pimp, which the victim may do because they believe it is the only way to keep the trafficker's affection. This represents an increase from an estimated 1 in 6 in Polaris, It is also very common to represent your gang by branding your body with tattoos.





Victims are captured then exploited all around the world, representing a diverse range of ages and backgrounds, including ethnic and socioeconomic. The following sections address the three components of control associated with human trafficking, namely force, fraud and coercion. The business structures of major rings of children trafficked for the purpose of begging have been examined as comparable to a medium-size business enterprise. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the British colonial administration introduced marriage age restrictions for Hindu and Muslim girls on the Indian subcontinent. Counselors working with sex trafficked survivors must assess whether the client has access to necessary resources, including housing, food, water, shelter and medicine. Research exploring the relationship between social media use and the well-being of young adults has yielded significant findings that promote a deeper understanding of how traffickers select and recruit victims online. It is essential that counselors build trust with the client by demonstrating unconditional positive regard, empathy and authenticity. Trauma-sensitive interventions identify safety as the foundation for working with persons to eliminate self-harm, develop trustworthy relationships, overcome challenges, promote wellness and remove themselves from dangerous situations Najavits, Sometimes vulnerable looking girls will be abducted while walking to their cars. Early marriages have been common in historical times, including in Europe. Once a strong therapeutic relationship has been established, counselors may begin pursuing a variety of counseling goals, including psychoeducation, supporting clients through the stages of personal change, engaging in group counseling, medication management, addressing substance use issues, and promoting reintegration through education and job training. Many scholars critique the power hierarchies based on gender, race, and class which underlie economic systems as perpetuators of women's vulnerability to sex trafficking. I am curious whether this has been your experience as well? Abusive relations have been associated with malnutrition among both mothers and children. This is referred to as the Romeo Method. Counselors and medical professionals may additionally note that trafficked survivors struggle during a mental status exam Chesnay, When officials view trafficking as a crime and have a precise understanding of its core elements, they are better equipped to identify and combat it, regardless of the particular scheme the trafficker uses. Often, third world countries are origin countries characterized by locations with a large supply of available victims Bales, They seek to make the victim dependent on them. In addition, the ILO found that victims of sex trafficking more likely faced transnational human trafficking while victims of forced labor typically experienced exploitation in their country of residence. Providing psychoeducation on the process, rates and prevalence of sex trafficking may be beneficial for clients to promote insight. Together they would show the vast and varied array of methods traffickers use to compel adults and children of all genders, education levels, nationalities, and immigration statuses into service in both licit and illicit sectors. She was raised in Central America by her grandmother, and as a young woman, was deceived by a man she thought cared for her with promises of love and a better life. Counselors should increase their awareness of the vulnerabilities that place persons at risk of becoming trafficked. Despite misconceptions that sex trafficking requires transportation across state or country borders, the majority of victims are domestically trafficked within their own country by persons of the same nationality Shelley, ; U. According to Polaris , a variety of indicators exist that may suggest forced exploitation. In this context, it is important to remember that in halakha , the term "minor" refers to a girl under twelve years and a day. For example, a mother may allow a boyfriend to abuse a child in exchange for housing. Signs of Trafficking in Medical Settings Trafficked persons may present in health care settings, although these instances occur at a low rate.





The syndicates recruit women from South Africa and send them to Europe and Asia, where they are forced into prostitution, drug smuggling, or domestic violence. Abusers tend to dehumanise , make threats, deprive basic needs and personal access, isolation and track the victim's daily schedule via spyware. This multifaceted crime can challenge policy makers. Globally, the prevalence of child marriage among boys is just one sixth that among girls. Despite common misconceptions, for an act to be considered sex trafficking, forced movement across the state is not required U. One survivor, a client of the author, reported that a family member diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder trafficked her for a period of 2 months. Counselors are encouraged to seek supervision, connect with colleagues and practice regular self-care routines in order to avoid experiencing burnout, secondary trauma, and compassion fatigue when working with this population. Abusive relations have been associated with malnutrition among both mothers and children. Once recruited from origin countries, survivors are transported to destination countries, characterized by locations with high demand for commercial sex Bales, It is important to note that not all trafficked persons experience physical suffering Aradau, ; Belser, I commend those who are fearless in the fight against human trafficking—those who courageously take on the tough cases, those who argue for stringent sentences for criminals and restitution for victims, and those who do so while ensuring that victims are treated with dignity. Signs of Trafficking in School Settings School counselors need to be mindful of signs that students are being trafficked. The following article provides a brief overview of the definition, terms and processes associated with human trafficking. Therefore, building strong rapport with sex trafficked clients is critical Chesnay, Familial trafficking may be difficult to detect because these children often have a larger degree of freedom and may still attend school and after-school functions. According to these sources, Muhammad married Aisha , his third wife, when she was about six, [b] and consummated the marriage when she was about nine. Peer support is a crucial component for treatment since bearing witness to the similar lived experiences of other survivors provides a unique dimension of support and sense of universality Chesnay,

The business structures of major rings of children trafficked for the purpose of begging have been examined as comparable to a medium-size business enterprise. For example, authorities may not consider men and boys as victims of sex trafficking due to a common misperception that sex traffickers only exploit women and girls. When threats, force or coercion is used for the purpose of exploitation, victim consent is not relevant Logan, I have seen first-hand how those on the ground in countries around the world implement effective strategies to combat human trafficking.

Author: Branris

2 thoughts on “Sex trafficking in developing countries

  1. Providing psychoeducation on the process, rates and prevalence of sex trafficking may be beneficial for clients to promote insight.

  2. Social media Web sites such as Myspace, Twitter and Facebook have been identified as a frequent tool used by traffickers to recruit adolescents into the sex trafficking trade Demir, ; Jordan et al.

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