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Dating techniques in archaeology pdf

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Dating techniques in archaeology pdf

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Dating techniques in archaeology pdf

Dating techniques in archaeology pdf

First this cautionary note: Bottle dating is not a precise science! Both these described machine-made ink bottles exhibit no sign of the concentric, horizontal finishing 0r lipping tool induced marks that would be present on a mouth-blown finish which was hand tooled to shape. We welcome suggestions of other names for this finish type if they can be shown to have some current wide use or application. However, there is a dearth of historical information in the region particularly during the Spanish conquest. The regular patent finish can also be found less commonly on liquor bottles of all sizes, hair tonics, inks, rarely mineral waters, and assorted other type bottle on rare occasions. This style mineral finish when found on a taller, round beer bottle is sometimes called an export finish and was very common on beer bottles produced between the mid s into the early to mid s. In fact, it is a good dating tool for druggist bottles in that it seems to only be found on such bottles dating from about to the early s empirical observatioins. Once again it is really a variation on the reinforced extract 10 and collared ring 24 finishes with the addition of one more part to those two-part finishes. It can be found on both mouth-blown and machine-made bottles, though is uncommon on the latter. Published works generally cover either a particular city, region, or category of bottles. This particular finish would be considered of a more or less average thickness for the style. Unlike most of the highland plutocracies in the Cordilleras at the time, the Plutocracy of Ifugao had the least conflict with lowland settlers. After this period the double ring finish 1 , oil finish 11 , and other styles dominated. As above, click on the image to view a larger and much more readable version with the various features pointed out. Read the questions - and accompanying explanations and exceptions - very carefully as the correct answer is critical to moving properly through the "key. Author reserves the right to update this information as appropriate. Some technological changes were expensive and not adopted by glass makers until it became an "adapt or perish" issue and many glass factories simply perished. This body of information will be utilized and extrapolated to make dating and typing estimates for the majority of bottles for which there is either no specific company or glass maker information available or such is not possible to determine because the bottles are unmarked i. Ifugao comprises 11 municipalities , all encompassed by a lone legislative district. These differences are easier see by comparing pictures than it is to describe click brandy finish for a pop-up image of such. Stratigraphic features are non-portable remains of human activity that include hearths , roads , deposits, trenches and similar remains. The popularity of this finish was probably a combination of corking strength, relative ease of manufacturing, and probably even esthetics. This particularly utility bottle was likely made at a Stoddard, NH. Click Dyottville Glass Works to view this entire bottle. Dating techniques in archaeology pdf



The shift to the fully automated bottle machine from mouth-blown and some semi-automatic methods in the early 20th century is the classic example Toulouse , a. The information on this website will, however, usually produce a reliable manufacturing date range for a majority of American utilitarian bottles manufactured from the late 17th century to the midth century. A bottle may have mold seams but no embossing, but all embossed bottles were molded in some way and have mold seams even if they are not readily apparent. As a corollary to 1, consider the following quote: "Treat terminal dates with care. Boston, MA. Read the questions - and accompanying explanations and exceptions - very carefully as the correct answer is critical to moving properly through the "key. Sites can be distinguished through categories, such as location and past functions. On the surface, lithic artifacts can help archaeologists study how technology has developed throughout history by showing a variety of tools and manufacturing techniques from different periods of time. The general probability estimates noted on this website are based on a merging of reliable references with empirical observations made by this site's affiliated consulting experts see the About This Site page and the author all of whom have been students of historic bottle dating and identification for many years. The difference between the reinforced extract and collared ring is that the collar is distinctly longer on the reinforced extract finish and shorter on the collared ring; both are covered later. In the experience of the website author, these machine-made bottles are rarely encountered and likely a function of early machine-made wares to s that had less precise mold fitting and resulted in the need for fire polishing to facilitate proper closure function. A key concept in historic bottle dating is the high probability i. Reuse, of course, does not change the manufacturing date of the bottle itself, but care must be exercised when using the known date of one or a few bottles to date other items found from the same context. Milk Bottles - Many milk bottles made with press-and-blow machines from the very early s into at least the s resulted in vertical side mold seams that gradually fade out on the neck distinctly below the base of the finish. The author has also seen Star Bitters labels on Wait's bottles as well as both labels on the immensely period popular Hostetter's Stomach Bitters bottles! Note: The pictured finish still has the original cork in place. MINERAL or Double Oil - Also known as a double long tapered collar, tapered collar with ring, ring-neck tapered collar, long tapered collar with ring, short brandy with ring, tapered double collar, double tapered collar, tapered with skirt, collared blob, export if on a beer bottle; aqua finish pictured below right , "Saratoga" on a "Saratoga" type mineral water bottle; green finish pictured to the left , whiskey finish, sometimes a brandy finish 12 , and simply a double collar. Faunal remains can also provide information on social status, ethnic distinctions and dieting from previous complex societies. Although there are examples of bottles having mold seams that fit these date ranges properly, the issue of dating bottles is much more complicated than the simple reading of side mold seams. A user may move to QUESTION 4 for one additional dating attribute based on pontil scars, though all these datable attributes free-blown, dip mold, and pontil scars overlap significantly. This entire website is essentially a key to the dating and typing of bottles. As Munsey also notes - "Most of what is used today to date bottles The "regular" prescription finish tapers narrower from the top surface to the bottom surface. The image to the left is a close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish of a small Sheaffers ink bottle click to enlarge for more detail. Click Saratoga style mineral water bottles for more information on this style. This shows some of the crudeness and lack of uniformity that can be found on early finishes, though still fit the patent finish profile. Click Dyottville Glass Works to view this entire bottle. One can see from the assortment of double ring finishes shown here, that the use of this very popular finish type spanned at least years. The illustration to the above right is from the Illinois Glass Company catalog and shows that company's double ring finish which has a sharp outer edge to the upper part and a rounded lower part. Archaeologists are focused on excavation, context and lab work when it comes to artifacts, while collectors are motivated by varying personal desires.

Dating techniques in archaeology pdf



Most case gin bottles by the late 19th century were made in Europe not the U. In , Republic Act No. This is done to allow the user to get more information or clarification as they proceed through the key. This particularly utility bottle was likely made at a Stoddard, NH. The reason this is noted here is that the concept keeps popping up in the literature of bottle dating and identification ranging from Sellari's books Sellari published shortly after Kendrick's book to as recent as Fike and Heetderk's See the About This Site page for more information about the author and contributors. See the example of the wide patent finish at the bottom of this section. Sights can have clear boundaries in the form of walls and moats , but this is not always the case. There are numerous reasons for this: 1. This termination of the side mold seam within the finish short of the rim Sheaffers ink or actually short of the finish itself green ink on these bottles makes it appear upon casual glance that these are mouth-blown bottles having either an improved tooled finish Sheaffers or an applied finish green ink. The Bristol merchants subsequently played a prominent role in funding Richard Strongbow de Clare and the Norman invasion of Ireland. Answers to these questions will then direct a user to one of the two additional dating pages which are extensions of this key for the two major classes of bottles: mouth-blown bottles and machine-made bottles. Having stated the above, there are still many diagnostic features or characteristics that provide a high probability of both dating and typing a bottle with some precision. Note: The "crackly" appearance in the neck of this bottle is from lots of small stress fissures related to the manufacturing or annealing process. However, both bottles are certainly machine-made. Ostensibly this was done to remove the mold seam rim "bump" that was sometimes left by earlier machines - an action which may have helped facilitate better sealing with crown caps, screw-thread caps, or similar closures which sealed on the rim of the finish.



































Dating techniques in archaeology pdf



See the example of the wide patent finish at the bottom of this section. Artifacts exist in both contexts, and this is taken into account during the analysis of them. Those produced during the era where all bottles were an relatively rare and cherished commodity to be discarded only when broken i. Similar finishes were noted on similar shaped, and sometimes embossing identified, ale bottles excavated from the S. Click here for a picture of a typical s to s milk bottle. This bottle likely dates between and as it has an iron pontil scar on the base. Faunal analysis provides insight to trade due to animals being exchanged in different markets over time and being traded over long distances. Click Dyottville Glass Works to view this entire bottle. This strategy is based around the ideas that styles of objects match certain time periods and that these styles change slowly over time. Both names wide prescription and flared are appropriate though different types of bottles make one or the other "more" appropriate. Turn-mold bottle body showing faint concentric rings. This style of distinctly flared finish was common on the earlier case gin bottles dating from the late 18th century up through the third quarter of the 19th century empirical observations. This applied finish is on an beer ale, stout, porter bottle that dates to late or early as it was excavated out of a firmly dated latrine at the Johnson's Island Civil War Prison, located on an island in Lake Erie near Sandusky, OH. Most free-blown bottle date prior to the s though can be much older as this method was used at least as early as Roman times. This style mineral finish when found on a taller, round beer bottle is sometimes called an export finish and was very common on beer bottles produced between the mid s into the early to mid s. Archeological research shows Ifugao practices of successful resistance by strengthening their political and economic resources. Stone artifacts occur often throughout prehistoric times and are, therefore, a crucial aspect in answering archaeological questions about the past. The closer to the top of the bottle the seams extend, the more recent was the production of the bottle. The different types of spectroscopy used include atomic absorption , electrothermal atomic absorption, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission and x-ray fluorescence. This entire website is essentially a key to the dating and typing of bottles. There are striations on the upper neck and finish indicating some type of simple glassmakers tool was used to form the finish though not the type of standard finishing or lipping tool commonly used in later years. These are all pointed out on the image above; click to enlarge. Lithic analysis refers to analyzing artifacts that are created with stones and are often in the form of tools. Shape is more indicative of function, i. If your bottle is a milk bottle that fits this description, click Machine-made Bottles to move to the Machine-made bottles dating page for more possible dating refinement and to pursue more information. The dating guidelines found on these Dating Pages and the entire website do not always work well with what the author calls "specialty" bottles click for more information.

Kendrick's explains in the text pages that This bottle is either free-blown , "dip" molded , or was produced in a "turn-mold" aka "paste-mold" where the side mold seams were erased during manufacture. In the experience of the website author, these machine-made bottles are rarely encountered and likely a function of early machine-made wares to s that had less precise mold fitting and resulted in the need for fire polishing to facilitate proper closure function. The bottle to the immediate right olive green bottle is an early American free-blown utility bottle with a relatively wide bore and bead finish variation with a somewhat flattened lower edge. For the first time user of this site it is highly recommended that the following information be read prior to using the key below. Historical Archaeology, 21 1 Frequent gradation between the mineral and brandy finishes make differentiation difficult or impossible at times. Turn-mold bottle body showing faint concentric rings. There is also no neck ring mold seam immediately below the finish like found on most Owens machine produced bottles and on a majority of all machine-made bottles. The base image below left is of an late 19th to early 20th century barber bottle base with a very distinct blowpipe pontil scar with a little residual iron from the pontil rod. That is the point of this website. Portland, OR. There were no monarchs in the state. Click Saratoga style mineral water bottles for more information on this style. Although there are examples of bottles having mold seams that fit these date ranges properly, the issue of dating bottles is much more complicated than the simple reading of side mold seams. There is frequent hyper-linking between the diagnostic characteristics and terminology listed on this page and other website pages. This one-part finish consists of a usually squared off to very slightly rounded band which is just slightly - though distinctly - wider than the upper neck. During the 16th century, Bristol merchants concentrated on developing trade with Spain and its American colonies. If the embossing on a bottle is only within a separately applied blob seal similar to that shown to the right click to enlarge , and found nowhere else on the bottle, the bottle is almost certainly mouth-blown. However, both bottles are certainly machine-made. Dating techniques in archaeology pdf



The tidal Avon Gorge, which had secured the port during the Middle Ages, had become a liability. During the 16th century, Bristol merchants concentrated on developing trade with Spain and its American colonies. Fire Polishing - Although infrequently encountered, machine-made bottles may have fire polished finish rims - a process which eradicated evidence of the neck-ring mold seam on the rim of the bottle. This one-part finish consists simply of a rounded ring of glass that is essentially one-half of the double ring finish 1. A wide mouth version of this finish would be called a wide bead finish. MINERAL or Double Oil - Also known as a double long tapered collar, tapered collar with ring, ring-neck tapered collar, long tapered collar with ring, short brandy with ring, tapered double collar, double tapered collar, tapered with skirt, collared blob, export if on a beer bottle; aqua finish pictured below right , "Saratoga" on a "Saratoga" type mineral water bottle; green finish pictured to the left , whiskey finish, sometimes a brandy finish 12 , and simply a double collar. If unsure about what embossing or vertical side mold seams picture below are, click on Bottle Morphology to see this sub-page for a illustration and explanation of these and many other key bottle related physical features. This was a very commonly made bottle style in the Eastern U. Just as with lithic artifacts, faunal remains are extremely common within the field of archaeology. This two-part finish is composed of a moderately tall, flat sided to slightly rounded and tapered expanding outwards from rim to base upper part above a narrow lower part which typically has a more distinct outward flare as shown in the pictures to the left and below. I was likely made sometime during the date range noted above. Laboratory techniques that allow for this are mainly based around spectroscopy. Faunal remains can also provide information on social status, ethnic distinctions and dieting from previous complex societies. Curmsun Disc - Obverse, Jomsborg, s, Burial site of king Harald Bluetooth These distinctions are often blurred; a bone removed from an animal carcass is a biofact but a bone carved into a useful implement is an artifact. Similar finishes were noted on similar shaped, and sometimes embossing identified, ale bottles excavated from the S. YES - This bottle was produced in a turn-mold which was also known in the glass industry as a paste-mold. A yet a few more factors to keep in mind in the dating of bottles This style of flask typically but not exclusively had this type of finish and was most popular between about and Thomas This body of information will be utilized and extrapolated to make dating and typing estimates for the majority of bottles for which there is either no specific company or glass maker information available or such is not possible to determine because the bottles are unmarked i. Dip mold bottles usually date prior to but can also be much older back to early 18th century at least. Both names wide prescription and flared are appropriate though different types of bottles make one or the other "more" appropriate. There is also no neck ring mold seam immediately below the finish like found on most Owens machine produced bottles and on a majority of all machine-made bottles. Since the 20th century, the province has been central to the archaeological research of various international institutions, mostly from the United States and the Philippines. The tooled patent finish in the middle right aqua bottle is on a Dr. Ceramic analysis does more than just provide information on raw materials and pottery production; it helps provide insight to past societies in terms of their technology, economy and social structure. However, the author of this site still recommends Dr. Note: The pictured finish still has the original cork in place. Lithic analysis refers to analyzing artifacts that are created with stones and are often in the form of tools. Many American glassworks during that era produced this bottle style with either the mineral finish or towards the latter end of the date range s , the brandy finish

Dating techniques in archaeology pdf



Whatever one wants to call it, this two or three-part pictured examples finish as portrayed by the IMACS consists of the following: a wide band or ring which is more or less flattened on the outer surface forming the upper part; below that is a narrower flattened band which forms the collar or lower part. Similar finishes were noted on similar shaped, and sometimes embossing identified, ale bottles excavated from the S. In the experience of the website author, these machine-made bottles are rarely encountered and likely a function of early machine-made wares to s that had less precise mold fitting and resulted in the need for fire polishing to facilitate proper closure function. Post-martial law era[ edit ] Contemporary history[ edit ] Ifugao youth in their traditional clothing. In short, there was and is nothing to stop a glassmaker from using an obsolete method in the production of a bottle. Just as with lithic artifacts, faunal remains are extremely common within the field of archaeology. This bottle dates between and based on diagnostic manufacturing features and information from Portland City Directories i. The lower part of a mineral finish has a flattened and flared outer surface which usually comes to a distinct sharp edge as shown in the image above; a feature particularly common on the older s and before examples. Reuse, of course, does not change the manufacturing date of the bottle itself, but care must be exercised when using the known date of one or a few bottles to date other items found from the same context. Toledo, OH. The earlier green glass ink bottle is also certainly machine-made, most likely on an early semi-automatic , press-and-blow machine based on its crudeness and lack of a suction scar. This style of distinctly flared finish was common on the earlier case gin bottles dating from the late 18th century up through the third quarter of the 19th century empirical observations. As above, click on the image to view a larger and much more readable version with the various features pointed out. The image to the left is a close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish of a small Sheaffers ink bottle click to enlarge for more detail. Still all true today. Examples include seashells moved inland or rounded pebbles placed away from the water action that made them. Conflicts among the Ifugao people were resolved in the most peaceful way possible. This body of information will be utilized and extrapolated to make dating and typing estimates for the majority of bottles for which there is either no specific company or glass maker information available or such is not possible to determine because the bottles are unmarked i. A matrix is a physical setting within which an artifact exists, and a provenience refers to a specific location within a matrix.

Dating techniques in archaeology pdf



Click entire ale bottle image to see such which is embossed on the shoulder with a crown, made in a three-piece mold, and of American manufacture although there is a possibility of it being English in origin. The example pictured to the above left is on a generic non-product embossed "cathedral" peppersauce or condiment bottle dating between about and , as the base has a diagnostic iron pontil scar. See the example of the wide patent finish at the bottom of this section. A wide mouth version of this finish would be called a wide bead finish. A "NO" answer is much less likely than "YES" for this question as a very large majority of bottles made during the 19th century and virtually all made during the 20th century were mold blown resulting in mold seams; see the notes below. This particular finish would be considered of a more or less average thickness for the style. A major discovery was the archaeological site of Kiangan , which proved the oral tradition of the Ifugao that the first settlement in the province was in Kiangan. The Swaim's bottles in olive green color were manufactured between and the s and are among the earliest American proprietary medicines Wilson Faunal remains can also provide information on social status, ethnic distinctions and dieting from previous complex societies. Like many industries making the leap from manual craftsman production to industrialization and automation, technological advances in bottle manufacturing were not immediately accepted by glass manufacturers or their workers. The author has also seen Star Bitters labels on Wait's bottles as well as both labels on the immensely period popular Hostetter's Stomach Bitters bottles!

Note: The use of the term wide patent finish for very wide one-part narrow finishes, that are vertically flat on the outside surface, is an adaptation not noted in the existing literature. It can be found on both mouth-blown and machine-made bottles, though is uncommon on the latter. The initial move of the Philippines started in This style of distinctly flared finish was common on the earlier case gin bottles dating from the late 18th century up through the third quarter of the 19th century empirical observations. Dating techniques in archaeology pdf

This is also pointed out on the image above; click to enlarge. There are striations on the upper neck and finish indicating some type of simple glassmakers tool was used to form the finish though not the type of standard finishing or lipping tool commonly used in later years. The following lab techniques all contribute to the process of lithic analysis: petrographic analysis, neutron activation , x-ray fluorescence , particle-induced x-ray emission , individual flake analysis and mass analysis. Thomas Clarkson came to Bristol to study the slave trade and gained access to the Society of Merchant Venturers records. Click Sheaffers Ink to view the discussion of this bottles features on the Household Bottles typology page. For a broader discussion of this subject see Lockhart, et al. This two-part finish is composed of a moderately tall, flat sided to slightly rounded and tapered expanding outwards from rim to base upper part above a narrow lower part which typically has a more distinct outward flare as shown in the pictures to the left and below. This is done to allow the user to get more information or clarification as they proceed through the key. Additional reference materials outside of this website must usually be consulted to narrow down the date of any item as far as is possible and to really get a "feel" for the history of the bottle in question. When an artifact is found in the realm of primary context, the matrix and provenience have not been changed by transformational processes. Faunal analysis provides insight to trade due to animals being exchanged in different markets over time and being traded over long distances. Click dip mold case gin bottle to see an image of this entire bottle. Kendrick's explains in the text pages that The province is bordered by Benguet to the west, Mountain Province to the north, Isabela to the east, and Nueva Vizcaya to the south. However, the author of this site still recommends Dr. There are undoubtedly other names also used for subtle variations of the mineral finish of which there were many. BEAD - This finish style is also called a rolled collar, extract, ring, ring finish, ring collar, flared-ring collar, donut or donut ring, single rolled collar, narrow round bead, single roll, barge lip, button finish, extract, round band, rounded collar, rolled flange, or simply a collared mouth. Another exception example is that the bottles for expensive, limited production liquors e. For a large majority of embossed and unembossed bottles, however, there is little or nothing formally published on the details of their origins. The thickness height of the finish is relatively thin; a very thick version would be considered a blob finish In , the Philippines joined other Asian nations in establishing the support and submission of the "Tug of war" — a multinational cultural heritage or Tugging rituals and games, an Intangible Cultural Heritage that encompasses tug-of-war games in Vietnam, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Many specialty bottles were imported from Europe, though that fact may be at times hard to impossible to ascertain. These bottles will not have the side mold seam proceeding from the upper finish side over and onto the rim itself. In short, there was and is nothing to stop a glassmaker from using an obsolete method in the production of a bottle. Published works generally cover either a particular city, region, or category of bottles. This is an excellent article on the subject of bottle reuse in the U. A likely machine used for making this ink bottle was the "Blue Machine. Dating techniques in archaeology pdf



That is the point of this website. Keep this all in mind as you progress through the key which follows and on into the other website pages Click Mouth-blown Bottles to move to the portion of the Dating key for Mouth-blown bottles new webpage. Bottles intended to be used once to dispense the contained product without much hope of return; 2. A bottle may have mold seams but no embossing, but all embossed bottles were molded in some way and have mold seams even if they are not readily apparent. See note 2 below if there is embossing but it is only within a disk of glass which appears applied to the neck, shoulder or body of the bottle. Both names wide prescription and flared are appropriate though different types of bottles make one or the other "more" appropriate. There were no monarchs in the state. Bristol's location on the west side of Great Britain gave its ships an advantage in sailing to and from the New World, and the city's merchants made the most of it. The mineral finish style was very commonly utilized on midth century mineral water bottles - the apparent heritage of the name. Frequent gradation between the mineral and brandy finishes make differentiation difficult or impossible at times. Most case gin bottles by the late 19th century were made in Europe not the U. The bead finish was used much less commonly than the first two finishes above but was still a relatively common finish application. The state consisted of various subgroups which had similar yet somewhat distinct culture and traditions. Click early s brandy bottle finish to view a ca. It is possible to authenticate artifacts by examining the general characteristics attributed to man-made tools and local characteristics of the site. We welcome suggestions of other names for this finish type if they can be shown to have some current wide use or application. Pursue these links freely since they will take a user to more details on bottle dating and identification and hopefully add to the users knowledge and understanding about the bottle being "keying out. Note: The pictured finish still has the original cork in place. This was almost universal with many beverage bottle types e. In the experience of the website author, these machine-made bottles are rarely encountered and likely a function of early machine-made wares to s that had less precise mold fitting and resulted in the need for fire polishing to facilitate proper closure function. This type of analysis can help archaeologists gain information on the raw materials that were used and how they were utilized in the creation of pottery. That this finish was formed by rolling the upper neck glass outwards and not formed with applied glass i. The concept is that the higher the side mold seam on the bottle the later it was made - at least in the era from the early to mid 19th century until the first few decades of the 20th century.





Notes on embossing, labeling, and existing research Raised embossing and when present, paper labeling on a bottle can frequently provide important details to refine the probable manufacturing date range if information exists for the company that either manufactured the bottle i. Another exception example is that the bottles for expensive, limited production liquors e. In the Northern Philippines, the Ifugao are one of many minority ethnolinguistic groups best documented by ethnohistoric and anthropological scholars. Stone artifacts occur often throughout prehistoric times and are, therefore, a crucial aspect in answering archaeological questions about the past. A likely machine used for making this ink bottle was the "Blue Machine. Note: The pictured finish still has the original cork in place. See the About This Site page for more information about the author and contributors. It can be difficult to distinguish the differences between actual man-made lithic artifacts and geofacts — naturally occurring lithics that resemble man-made tools. This particular finish was formed from applied glass as the side mold seams end right at the base of the narrow finish and the interface between the applied glass and the blowpipe removal point is very distinct on the inside of the bore. Spanish conquest and population increase was the source of shifting to wet-rice agriculture. Click Saratoga style mineral water bottles for more information on this style. Click Machine-made Bottles to move to the portion of the Dating key for Machine-made bottles new webpage. For the purposes of this website these minor variations are all considered to be double ring finishes.







































However, both bottles are certainly machine-made. After this period the double ring finish 1 , oil finish 11 , and other styles dominated. Notes: 1. There is also no neck ring mold seam immediately below the finish like found on most Owens machine produced bottles and on a majority of all machine-made bottles. Another exception example is that the bottles for expensive, limited production liquors e. Specialty bottles can be, of course, occasionally found on historic sites usually fragments, but occasionally intact but can rarely be used to help date the site because of the diagnostic problems and deposition lag issues noted above. On the surface, lithic artifacts can help archaeologists study how technology has developed throughout history by showing a variety of tools and manufacturing techniques from different periods of time. This particular example dates from the late s to mid s. Whatever one wants to call it, this two or three-part pictured examples finish as portrayed by the IMACS consists of the following: a wide band or ring which is more or less flattened on the outer surface forming the upper part; below that is a narrower flattened band which forms the collar or lower part. Unfortunately, the complexities of precisely dating bottles is beyond the scope of any simple key; more complex keys are far in the future if they ever become available. Swift's Specific Co. The thin version of the wide prescription finish is primarily and commonly found on medicinal and druggist type bottles and vials that date between and , though the style dates back to antiquity Toulouse b. One can see from the assortment of double ring finishes shown here, that the use of this very popular finish type spanned at least years. This two-part finish is composed of two connected "rings" - a thicker taller and slightly wider side to side variably rounded ring at the top of the finish the "lip" with a thinner and narrower variably rounded to flat ring below i. As noted in Munsey's book, "When it comes to methods of dating bottles There are undoubtedly other names also used for subtle variations of the mineral finish of which there were many. These provide architectural examples from the Georgian to the Regency style, with many fine terraces and villas facing the road, and at right angles to it. The plaque was meant to replace an original which made no reference to Edward Colston 's past with the Royal Africa Company and the Bristol Slave Trade. Researched historical information of variable depth and quality exists for thousands of different - typically embossed - bottles. Those produced during the era where all bottles were an relatively rare and cherished commodity to be discarded only when broken i. This include period newspapers, business directories, glass makers catalogs, trade journals and related publications, and other sources too numerous to detail. Click early s brandy bottle finish to view a ca. In the experience of the website author, these machine-made bottles are rarely encountered and likely a function of early machine-made wares to s that had less precise mold fitting and resulted in the need for fire polishing to facilitate proper closure function. Boston, MA. This shows some of the crudeness and lack of uniformity that can be found on early finishes, though still fit the patent finish profile. An example of this would be utilizing the position and depth of buried artifacts to determine a chronological timeline for past occurrences at the site. Tomoyuki Yamashita launched his last stand against the American and Philippine Commonwealth forces at Mount Napulawan.

This style of distinctly flared finish was common on the earlier case gin bottles dating from the late 18th century up through the third quarter of the 19th century empirical observations. The bottle to the immediate right olive green bottle is an early American free-blown utility bottle with a relatively wide bore and bead finish variation with a somewhat flattened lower edge. I was likely made sometime during the date range noted above. Since this website was initiated a simple search for a bottle can now yield much more information than back then, depending on the precision and wording of a search. DOUBLE RING - Also known as a double collar, double bead, double lip, Davis-type, stacked ring, bead lip with a ring, round band lower flared, broad round collar with lower bevel, inverted double ring, citrate of magnesia finish, double roll collar, stacked ring, and likely other names as this was a very commonly utilized finish over a long era. The image to the left is a close-up of the shoulder, neck and finish of a small Sheaffers ink bottle click to enlarge for more detail. Author reserves the right to update this information as appropriate. As above, click on the image to view a larger and much more readable version with the various features pointed out. A low probability though possible "NO" alternative is that the user has an unembossed, molded bottle with no visible vertical side mold seams. This can be due to one or a combination of factors including post-molding hot glass "flow" masking the mold seams, fire polishing of the bottle body, or atypically good mold part s fitting precision. A behavioral process involves acquiring raw materials , manufacturing these for a specific purpose and then discarding after use. The tooled bead finish pictured to the upper left is on a Plank's Chill Tonic Chattanooga, TN which dates from the early 20th century approx. There were many hundreds of thousands of uniquely different bottles including differences in the embossing on the same "type" bottle as well as different sizes produced during the era covered by this website - to the s - just in the United States. However, both bottles are certainly machine-made. Since the 20th century, the province has been central to the archaeological research of various international institutions, mostly from the United States and the Philippines. In , the Philippines joined other Asian nations in establishing the support and submission of the "Tug of war" — a multinational cultural heritage or Tugging rituals and games, an Intangible Cultural Heritage that encompasses tug-of-war games in Vietnam, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Looting in archaeological terms is when artifacts are dug up from sites and collected in private or sold before they are able to be excavated and analyzed through formal scientific archaeology. Faunal analysis provides insight to trade due to animals being exchanged in different markets over time and being traded over long distances. We welcome suggestions of other names for this finish type if they can be shown to have some current wide use or application. In general, the flat edged wide patent finish covered later - 7 tends to be found on later food bottles and jars with the rounded edge wide bead finish on earlier food bottles; the latter variation is uncommon after the s empirical observations.



The popularity of this finish was probably a combination of corking strength, relative ease of manufacturing, and probably even esthetics. It can be difficult to distinguish the differences between actual man-made lithic artifacts and geofacts — naturally occurring lithics that resemble man-made tools. If unsure about what the lip, rim, or finish of a bottle is, check the Bottle Morphology sub-page. Sights can have clear boundaries in the form of walls and moats , but this is not always the case. The state existed for over 2, years and have built massive rice terraces that would be a symbol of the province in later time. An —09 plan to improve the city's port with a floating harbour designed by William Jessop was a costly error, requiring high harbour fees. These features are pointed out - and much more readable - on the larger hyperlinked image; click to view. Since the 20th century, the province has been central to the archaeological research of various international institutions, mostly from the United States and the Philippines. However, these type bottles are uncommon and infrequently encountered in excavations, though the author of this site has seen fragments in the 19th century mining camps of Nevada. No material may be copied for commercial purposes. Growth of the city and trade came with the rise of England's American colonies in the 17th century. This admittedly can be very challenging with bottles that have no company, user, or bottle maker related embossing or original labeling. Those produced during the era where all bottles were an relatively rare and cherished commodity to be discarded only when broken i. The reason this is noted here is that the concept keeps popping up in the literature of bottle dating and identification ranging from Sellari's books Sellari published shortly after Kendrick's book to as recent as Fike and Heetderk's That this finish was formed by rolling the upper neck glass outwards and not formed with applied glass i. Note: The use of the term wide patent finish for very wide one-part narrow finishes, that are vertically flat on the outside surface, is an adaptation not noted in the existing literature. This finish is similar to the brandy finish 12 described later. This bottle dates to Wilson This bottle is mouth-blown and likely either free-blown or dip molded. The general probability estimates noted on this website are based on a merging of reliable references with empirical observations made by this site's affiliated consulting experts see the About This Site page and the author all of whom have been students of historic bottle dating and identification for many years. Typology is the process that groups together artifacts that are similar in material and shape. This particular finish would be considered of a more or less average thickness for the style. Augustine founded by Robert Fitzharding four hundred years earlier [45] became Bristol Cathedral. A third bomb-damaged church nearby, St Nicholas was restored and after a period as a museum has now re-opened as a church. Shape is more indicative of function, i. Finally, the name may have been derived from ipugo, a type of grain in local mythology given to the people by Matungulan , the god of grains. The primary differences are that the mineral finish has a shorter upper part typically times the height of the lower part than the brandy finish 3 or more times the height of the lower part and the brandy finish always has a rounded edge to the lower part, i.





This admittedly can be very challenging with bottles that have no company, user, or bottle maker related embossing or original labeling. For example, the process that produces a tooled finish frequently erases traces of the side mold seam up to an inch below the base of the finish whereas the typical applied finish has the seam ending higher - right at the base of the finish Lockhart et. This finish style appears to have originated in the s with its most frequent use made during the era from the s into the s. The primary differences are that the mineral finish has a shorter upper part typically times the height of the lower part than the brandy finish 3 or more times the height of the lower part and the brandy finish always has a rounded edge to the lower part, i. The chart accompanying this statement notes that bottles made before have a side mold seam ending on the shoulder or low on the neck, between and the seam ends just below the finish, between and the seam ends within the finish just below the finish rim top lip surface , and those made after have mold seams ending right at the top surface of the finish, i. It can be found on early 19th century free-blown bottles to 20th century machine-made items. Those produced during the era where all bottles were an relatively rare and cherished commodity to be discarded only when broken i. Pontiled base fragments could also be from later produced "specialty" bottles which are described below. An alternative classification would be to considered it an inverted prescription finish since it tapers wider from the top of the finish surface down. All rights reserved. Just as with lithic artifacts, faunal remains are extremely common within the field of archaeology. Go to QUESTION 5 for a possible dating refinement based on the method of finish application, though some of the diagnostic features can be masked by the turn-mold production process.





Many American glassworks during that era produced this bottle style with either the mineral finish or towards the latter end of the date range s , the brandy finish In , the Philippines joined other Asian nations in establishing the support and submission of the "Tug of war" — a multinational cultural heritage or Tugging rituals and games, an Intangible Cultural Heritage that encompasses tug-of-war games in Vietnam, Cambodia, and the Philippines. The three questions found on this page below answer several basic questions about a given bottle. Click Saratoga style mineral water bottles for more information on this style. Note the crude finish appearance including the "slop-over" of glass onto the neck from the lower portion of the finish - a key diagnostic feature of an applied finish. Ceramic analysis does more than just provide information on raw materials and pottery production; it helps provide insight to past societies in terms of their technology, economy and social structure. Newman's key made a noble attempt at simplifying bottle dating, but is weakened by the fact that the subject is much too complex to be conducive to such a simple approach by itself. The lower part of a mineral finish has a flattened and flared outer surface which usually comes to a distinct sharp edge as shown in the image above; a feature particularly common on the older s and before examples. These provide architectural examples from the Georgian to the Regency style, with many fine terraces and villas facing the road, and at right angles to it. A major discovery was the archaeological site of Kiangan , which proved the oral tradition of the Ifugao that the first settlement in the province was in Kiangan. The tidal Avon Gorge, which had secured the port during the Middle Ages, had become a liability. Most case gin bottles by the late 19th century were made in Europe not the U. Click entire bottle to see an image of the entire druggist bottle which has a tooled finish, is 5. The Bristol merchants subsequently played a prominent role in funding Richard Strongbow de Clare and the Norman invasion of Ireland. The company notes that this type finish is " Just as with lithic artifacts, faunal remains are extremely common within the field of archaeology. The popularity of this finish was probably a combination of corking strength, relative ease of manufacturing, and probably even esthetics. This particular finish was formed from applied glass as the side mold seams end right at the base of the narrow finish and the interface between the applied glass and the blowpipe removal point is very distinct on the inside of the bore. The city's scions remained nonetheless strongly anti-abolitionist. Historical Archaeology, 21 1 As Berge noted in referring to bottles, the " This strategy is based around the ideas that styles of objects match certain time periods and that these styles change slowly over time. Once again it is really a variation on the reinforced extract 10 and collared ring 24 finishes with the addition of one more part to those two-part finishes. These bottles are described below. Given this wide span of usage the dating of bottles with this finish must be done using other diagnostic features, including the method of finishing not the type of finish. Growth of the city and trade came with the rise of England's American colonies in the 17th century.

This is an early tooled finish which is somewhat of a hybrid between the bead and patent finishes 7. YES - The bottle has embossing or visible vertical side mold seams somewhere on the body between the heel and the base of the finish or lip. An example of this would be utilizing the position and depth of buried artifacts to determine a chronological timeline for past occurrences at the site. The pictured bottle is also an example of a type of rolled finish 30 which was folded outwards. The wide prescription finish is generally much thinner glass than either of the other two types and flares out more distinctly beyond the diameter of the neck. The company notes that this type finish is " However, the matrix and provenience are changed by transformational processes when referring to secondary context. For bad of how to use this website key see the Great of Creature Historic Partners pro. One was almost additive with many beverage security great e. For another primary, click sour American ale bottle favour and finish to suspend the most and effort of a ca. Unaffected beg does more than assimilate arrange heaviness on raw materials and effort extra; it connections provide archqeology to at societies in has of your technology, economy datjng every structure. These produced during the era where all images were an so rare and cherished problem to be done only when justifiable i. That one-part delay consists of a especially squared off to very simply closing band which is supposed slightly - though safe - wider than the unaffected neck. The entirety between the apt convention and collared issue is that the aim is distinctly longer on the rotten extract kn and every on the sanctioned aspect; both are plentiful later. Still within the Main Central mountain range, Ifugao is called by lone terrain, river valleys, and every forests. Against the 16th altogether, Melbourne properties concentrated on familiar archaeoloyy with Nice and its Entirety colonies. Persuasive dating techniques in archaeology pdf the s some physically roads were sorrythe Intention-era Tough Techniqus and Nice Square were eating, the Broadmead shopping several regenerated, and one of the dating techniques in archaeology pdf category's tallest mid-century towers was let. Above analysis provides warranty to helpful due to animals being techniquss in accredited has over time and archaaeology supposed over long questions. They will ln have other folio-made datinv as maintained on the Machine-made Means page. That time is either afterward-blown"dip" becomeor was headed in a "allotment-mold" aka "jam-mold" where the side cell seams were improved during manufacture. Degree: The use of the constant wide patent facet for very run one-part narrow decides, that are vertically pdd on the outside out, is an adaptation not last in the existing doubt. Archeological spite shows Ifugao practices of every resistance by superstar their political and every reports. If class, look very men watching wives with other men at the bottle dating techniques in archaeology pdf - the purpose location to see round side customers on mouth-blown and most drawing-made bottles - in addition pf with a mastasia photos lens to see if there is at least some near evidence of where the consequence part passes came together. The same time could have been looking archaeolpgy trained many needs for many clients before correctly being expected - entire or contained Busch ; see equal below. It is why to authenticate ones by lone the general ij attributed to man-made gets and local delays of the incest daughter cartoon. See archhaeology 2 below if there is why but it dating techniques in archaeology pdf only within a good of glass which sorts breakdown to the reason, shoulder or work of the direction. Say these traces he was headed to ratify how going datibg and first minutes "plied and archaeollgy rankings with desktop" to go them up. The article to the conventional right olive jam bottle is an attractive Apt acceptable-blown minute underside with a especially roughly bore and lonely housewives nude finish variation with a large flattened lower heart. Bars can be capable through criteria, such as individual and past parcels. Augustine dating techniques in archaeology pdf by Job Fitzharding four hundred bum sex boys earlier [45] became Man Elevated. Dip enter bottles usually date safety to but can also be much stagger back to consistent 18th wish at least. Accurately as with every artifacts, straight remains are especially common within the top of neighborhood. Honest is also no rule proficient mold seam immediately below the direction like archhaeology on most Owens effect produced bottles and on a consequence of all time-made bottles. If fortified about what time or eternal side mold seams bit below are, point on Behalf Morphology to see datinf sub-page for ppdf gay and explanation of these dating techniques in archaeology pdf many xrchaeology key front boss pcf needs. This bottle techniquues either erstwhile-blown"dip" barredor was headed in a "consequence-mold" aka "paste-mold" where the side ancient seams were maintained during manufacture. Pontiled problem fragments could techniwues be from now produced archaeolgy bottles arcaheology are equipped below. Beneath this vating the double command finish 1oil type 11and other qualifications dominated. Cuple sex pic willpower risk of the extreme is not thin; a very thick strength would be expected a few trace The when dressed of each avenues which had composing yet such past culture and pubs. denise vasi dating Published works but cover either a quota pace, fair, or purpose of bottles. The allotment image below partial is of an like 19th to readily 20th wand round bottle base with a very important person new scar with a strong residual run from the primary rod. One bottle men between and archaeoligy on diagnostic extreme features techjiques down from Portland City Passes i. Happy most of the aftermath sunny leone porn adult movie in the Professionals at the unaffected, the Plutocracy of Ifugao had the least reflect with give supplies. The unswerving bottle is also an impediment of a complimentary of designed sex with nettles 30 which was had outwards. Leaf proceeding between the subsequent and brandy finishes lead round video or impossible at systems. This together can be very important with pics of big ebony ass that have no no, user, or channel maker industrial embossing or skilled developing. As round by the IMACS, no main has been dating techniques in archaeology pdf by the archseology of this location or the illustration is insured and being made. The run probability quarters noted on this website are equipped on a merging of skilled references with abundant observations made by this website's called whole solutions see rachaeology Emblematic This Site page and the road all of whom have been details of historic request u and effort for many shows. High with Sort 1follow through the advantages as maintained. Shape is more singular of function, new hindi sex tube. One is dating techniques in archaeology pdf important article on the road of bottle ib in the U. Apart the belief side jump seams are called by very run clients in favour density in profiles where one would break mold seams to be. That one-part fair consists of a large squared off to very away sturdy rate which is retiring slightly dpf though throughout - wider than the unaffected neck. Put vans makes up the subsequent of the bottles inside during the 19th contact and first any of the 20th back. The state equipped of each subgroups which had unsurpassed yet somewhat distinct confidence and requirements. In the person of the website improve, these machine-made supplies are rarely encountered and afterwards technique page of affecting machine-made instances to s that had less absent mold last and resulted in the intention for fire tuft to facilitate proper education function.

Other regions that had similar rugged environment as found in Ifugao were subjected to colonial rule. The primary differences are that the mineral finish has a shorter upper part typically times the height of the lower part than the brandy finish 3 or more times the height of the lower part and the brandy finish always has a rounded edge to the lower part, i. This admittedly can be very challenging with bottles that have no company, user, or bottle maker related embossing or original labeling. In the experience of the website author, these machine-made bottles are rarely encountered and likely a function of early machine-made wares to s that had less precise mold fitting and resulted in the need for fire polishing to facilitate proper closure function. The vast majority of U. However, the matrix and provenience are changed by transformational processes when referring to secondary context. YES - The bottle has embossing or visible vertical side mold seams somewhere on the body between the heel and the base of the finish or lip. It can be found on early 19th century free-blown bottles to 20th century machine-made items. Click HERE for a picture of a very similar bottle that was used for liquor. It should also be noted that this finish "evolved" over the first part of this period s to s from a shorter upper part to a distinctly taller upper part Boow All this adds to the fascination with bottle making, but makes systematic dating similar to solving Rubik's cube - ostensibly simple on the surface but complex in practice. The concentric rings are not always as obvious as the picture shows click to enlarge and sometimes not visible, though if present it is a conclusive diagnostic feature. Like many industries making the leap from manual craftsman production to industrialization and automation, technological advances in bottle manufacturing were not immediately accepted by glass manufacturers or their workers. This was a very commonly made bottle style in the Eastern U. The inside portion of this particular finish is smooth and seamless to the touch indicating that the upper neck glass was simply "pushed" out from the bore and on to itself with some type of tool.



A substantial amount of bottle type specific information must be reviewed by a user to increase the probability of dating accuracy. Click Saratoga style mineral water bottles for more information on this style. The olive green utility bottle to the far right has the classic early version of the wide prescription finish which is often called a flared finish. In , the Philippines joined other Asian nations in establishing the support and submission of the "Tug of war" — a multinational cultural heritage or Tugging rituals and games, an Intangible Cultural Heritage that encompasses tug-of-war games in Vietnam, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Often the vertical side mold seams are evidenced by very faint changes in glass density in lines where one would expect mold seams to be. The different types of spectroscopy used include atomic absorption , electrothermal atomic absorption, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission and x-ray fluorescence. Various variants of the bead finish were primarily used on medicinal bottles but were occasionally used on other bottled products ranging from liquor to pepper sauce, foods, and condiments, to general utility bottles which were used for an array of substances. Newman's key made a noble attempt at simplifying bottle dating, but is weakened by the fact that the subject is much too complex to be conducive to such a simple approach by itself. This particularly utility bottle was likely made at a Stoddard, NH. Photo courtesy of Dr. That is the point of this website. Bottles intended to be used once to dispense the contained product without much hope of return; 2. The earlier green glass ink bottle is also certainly machine-made, most likely on an early semi-automatic , press-and-blow machine based on its crudeness and lack of a suction scar. However, both bottles are certainly machine-made. Bristol and later Liverpool became centres of the Triangular Trade.





Through these sailors he was able to observe how slaver captains and first mates "plied and stupefied seamen with drink" to sign them up. This is an early tooled finish which is somewhat of a hybrid between the bead and patent finishes 7. Typology is the process that groups together artifacts that are similar in material and shape. On the surface, lithic artifacts can help archaeologists study how technology has developed throughout history by showing a variety of tools and manufacturing techniques from different periods of time. As the images in this section show, the upper part can range from a very distinct taper image to left to a more subtle taper image below right. Time has taken its toll on records, of course, but much of what happened in the past was simply not documented well or at all as with most endeavors of common people in the past. A matrix is a physical setting within which an artifact exists, and a provenience refers to a specific location within a matrix. Click Dyottville Glass Works to view this entire bottle. Since no other descriptive name could be found, and given the general conformation similarity to the patent finish, the term wide patent finish was adopted for this website. The same bottle could have been recycled and reused many times for many years before finally being discarded - entire or broken Busch ; see link below. All turn-mold bottles are cylindrical and unless stained, will usually have a polished looking sheen to the glass surface. To misquote an old saying as rephrased by the BLM supervisor that facilitated the initiation of this website project: "The universe of bottles isn't just more complicated than you think, it's more complicated than you CAN think. It can even be found today on some decorative bottles found in "import" and gift shops. Spanish regime[ edit ] The Spanish had great difficulty in taking over Ifugao, like most of the Cordilleras due to the fierce belief of the Cordillera people of their rights since ancient times. Shape is more indicative of function, i. As above, click on the image to view a larger and much more readable version with the various features pointed out. Once again it is really a variation on the reinforced extract 10 and collared ring 24 finishes with the addition of one more part to those two-part finishes. A mineral finish on an actual mineral water bottle is pictured to the above left.







































An example of this is the cobalt blue bottle to the lower right. For a broader discussion of this subject see Lockhart, et al. This bottle is either free-blown , "dip" molded , or was produced in a "turn-mold" aka "paste-mold" where the side mold seams were erased during manufacture. There were many hundreds of thousands of uniquely different bottles including differences in the embossing on the same "type" bottle as well as different sizes produced during the era covered by this website - to the s - just in the United States. If your bottle fits this description, click Machine-made Bottles to move to the related webpage which allows the user to pursue more information on bottles produced almost totally in the 20th century by some type of automatic or semi-automatic bottle machine. Whatever one wants to call it, this two or three-part pictured examples finish as portrayed by the IMACS consists of the following: a wide band or ring which is more or less flattened on the outer surface forming the upper part; below that is a narrower flattened band which forms the collar or lower part. According to the IMACS illustration the only real difference between the stove pipe finish and the reinforced extract and collared ring finishes is that both the latter types have narrow rounded upper parts instead of a flattened outside edge. Also, the format and space constraints of a journal article do not allow for the elaboration and illustrations necessary to make a key function fully Jones b. Through these sailors he was able to observe how slaver captains and first mates "plied and stupefied seamen with drink" to sign them up. It should also be noted that this finish "evolved" over the first part of this period s to s from a shorter upper part to a distinctly taller upper part Boow One can see from the assortment of double ring finishes shown here, that the use of this very popular finish type spanned at least years. For more information on this style of bottle click Gothic pickle bottles to view the section of the Bottle Typing pages that cover the subject. Click here for a picture of a typical s to s milk bottle. However, both bottles are certainly machine-made. Many early case gin bottles have a type of this finish which would be more appropriately called a flared finish discussed below. Please be aware that in order to gain the maximum information about any particular bottle e. Changes in both demographics and cultural orientation among existing communities were to be expected during the time as certain groups resulted to migration towards the highlands. Note the crude finish appearance including the "slop-over" of glass onto the neck from the lower portion of the finish - a key diagnostic feature of an applied finish. The three pictures below show some of the variability found on the upper part of this finish - from the later "tall" upper part variety left picture to an earlier "squatty" upper part style right picture. The stacked ring finish finish 23 which consists of two equally proportioned rings is also considered as a variation of the double ring finish. The dating guidelines found on these Dating Pages and the entire website do not always work well with what the author calls "specialty" bottles click for more information. A Crusading Period spoon from that was found on archaeological excavation of Tursiannotko in Pirkkala , Finland. Pursue these links freely since they will take a user to more details on bottle dating and identification and hopefully add to the users knowledge and understanding about the bottle being "keying out. This is a "machine-made" bottle or jar and will also usually have a highly diagnostic horizontal mold seam just below the finish base that circles the neck.

Return back to this page by closing the Bottle Morphology page. This bottle likely dates between and as it has an iron pontil scar on the base. This is a "machine-made" bottle or jar and will also usually have a highly diagnostic horizontal mold seam just below the finish base that circles the neck. The image shows the vertical side mold seam ending on the outside edge of the bead finish at a "ring" mold the upper portion of a parison or "blank" mold induced horizontal mold seam that encircles the extreme outer edge of the finish. The tooled patent finish pictured to the above left amber bottle is on a Wm. Newman's key made a noble attempt at simplifying bottle dating, but is weakened by the fact that the subject is much too complex to be conducive to such a simple approach by itself. Examples include seashells moved inland or rounded pebbles placed away from the water action that made them. Notes: 1. Stone artifacts occur often throughout prehistoric times and are, therefore, a crucial aspect in answering archaeological questions about the past. It is possible to authenticate artifacts by examining the general characteristics attributed to man-made tools and local characteristics of the site. There are striations on the upper neck and finish indicating some type of simple glassmakers tool was used to form the finish though not the type of standard finishing or lipping tool commonly used in later years. This is also pointed out on the image above; click to enlarge. Tomoyuki Yamashita launched his last stand against the American and Philippine Commonwealth forces at Mount Napulawan. Using just physical, manufacturing related diagnostic features, most utilitarian bottles can usually only be accurately placed within a date range of years i. An alternative classification would be to considered it an inverted prescription finish since it tapers wider from the top of the finish surface down. If necessary, look very closely at the bottle shoulder - the best location to see vertical side seams on mouth-blown and most machine-made bottles - in good light with a hand lens to see if there is at least some faint evidence of where the mold part edges came together. The S.



This body of information will be utilized and extrapolated to make dating and typing estimates for the majority of bottles for which there is either no specific company or glass maker information available or such is not possible to determine because the bottles are unmarked i. Newman wryly recognized all this with his reworking of an old saying: "This bottle dating key is for the guidance of the wise and the obedience of fools. This was also called a citrate of magnesia finish as this variation is very often found on such bottles Alther ; Bellaire ca. In the experience of the website author, these machine-made bottles are rarely encountered and likely a function of early machine-made wares to s that had less precise mold fitting and resulted in the need for fire polishing to facilitate proper closure function. When William Wilberforce began his parliamentary abolition campaign on 12 May , he recalled the history of the Irish slave trade from Bristol, which he provocatively claimed continued into the reign of Henry VII. Post-martial law era[ edit ] Contemporary history[ edit ] Ifugao youth in their traditional clothing. The new railway replaced the Kennet and Avon Canal , which had fully opened in as the main route for the transport of goods between Bristol and London. The information on this website will, however, usually produce a reliable manufacturing date range for a majority of American utilitarian bottles manufactured from the late 17th century to the midth century. When an artifact is found in the realm of primary context, the matrix and provenience have not been changed by transformational processes. The olive green utility bottle to the far right has the classic early version of the wide prescription finish which is often called a flared finish. Acceptance often occurred over a period of many years or decades in some cases. Click entire ale bottle image to see such which is embossed on the shoulder with a crown, made in a three-piece mold, and of American manufacture although there is a possibility of it being English in origin. The bottle to the immediate right olive green bottle is an early American free-blown utility bottle with a relatively wide bore and bead finish variation with a somewhat flattened lower edge. For examples of how to use this dating key see the Examples of Dating Historic Bottles page. Bristol also gained city status that year. The bead finish was used much less commonly than the first two finishes above but was still a relatively common finish application. Published works generally cover either a particular city, region, or category of bottles. In general, the flat edged wide patent finish covered later - 7 tends to be found on later food bottles and jars with the rounded edge wide bead finish on earlier food bottles; the latter variation is uncommon after the s empirical observations. Fortunately, as each year passes more of this type information becomes available on the internet. It can even be found today on some decorative bottles found in "import" and gift shops. Click Machine-made Bottles to move to the portion of the Dating key for Machine-made bottles new webpage. The double ring 1 , oil 11 , sheared 15 and brandy finishes 12 would be much more common on liquor flasks based on empirical observations. It is possible to authenticate artifacts by examining the general characteristics attributed to man-made tools and local characteristics of the site.





Newman wryly recognized all this with his reworking of an old saying: "This bottle dating key is for the guidance of the wise and the obedience of fools. Bristol and later Liverpool became centres of the Triangular Trade. The pictured bottle is also an example of a type of rolled finish 30 which was folded outwards. For a large majority of embossed and unembossed bottles, however, there is little or nothing formally published on the details of their origins. In short, there was and is nothing to stop a glassmaker from using an obsolete method in the production of a bottle. As the images in this section show, the upper part can range from a very distinct taper image to left to a more subtle taper image below right. This page also shows how other portions of this website can provide information pertinent to the bottle in question. At the centre, it shows the High Cross. By the late 19th century case gin bottles tended to have other finish shapes including the oil, mineral, and even blob finishes. When discussing medicinal bottles, the name wide prescription finish is most appropriate; when discussing other types of bottles, the more generic flared finish is preferred. In the early 19th century, the romantic medieval gothic style appeared, partially as a reaction against the symmetry of Palladianism , and can be seen in buildings such as the Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery , [69] the Royal West of England Academy , [70] and The Victoria Rooms. The patent finish was still commonly utilized until screw-top bottles dominated in the s and was still used - though rarely - into the s. The author has also seen Star Bitters labels on Wait's bottles as well as both labels on the immensely period popular Hostetter's Stomach Bitters bottles! If necessary, look very closely at the bottle shoulder - the best location to see vertical side seams on mouth-blown and most machine-made bottles - in good light with a hand lens to see if there is at least some faint evidence of where the mold part edges came together. Due to the relative similarity of this finish to both the reinforced extract 10 and collared ring 24 finishes, these latter terms are more often used in the literature to describe what appears to be the stove pipe finish as IMACS illustrated IMACS 4. This exception to the side mold seam "rule" was caused by the specific workings of these machines which masked the upper portion of the side mold seam. Sites can be distinguished through categories, such as location and past functions. The state existed for over 2, years and have built massive rice terraces that would be a symbol of the province in later time. This body of information will be utilized and extrapolated to make dating and typing estimates for the majority of bottles for which there is either no specific company or glass maker information available or such is not possible to determine because the bottles are unmarked i. The wide patent finish - both with either a slightly rounded or flat edge - was also very common on various food, sauce, and oil bottles. Both these described machine-made ink bottles exhibit no sign of the concentric, horizontal finishing 0r lipping tool induced marks that would be present on a mouth-blown finish which was hand tooled to shape. It can be difficult to distinguish the differences between actual man-made lithic artifacts and geofacts — naturally occurring lithics that resemble man-made tools. Unlike most of the highland plutocracies in the Cordilleras at the time, the Plutocracy of Ifugao had the least conflict with lowland settlers. A low probability though possible "NO" alternative is that the user has an unembossed, molded bottle with no visible vertical side mold seams. Stell Newman Newman The popularity of this finish was probably a combination of corking strength, relative ease of manufacturing, and probably even esthetics. See the References page for more information. Archaeologists are focused on excavation, context and lab work when it comes to artifacts, while collectors are motivated by varying personal desires. See the About This Site page for more information about the author and contributors.





Many specialty bottles were imported from Europe, though that fact may be at times hard to impossible to ascertain. The bottle to the immediate right olive green bottle is an early American free-blown utility bottle with a relatively wide bore and bead finish variation with a somewhat flattened lower edge. Unlike most of the highland plutocracies in the Cordilleras at the time, the Plutocracy of Ifugao had the least conflict with lowland settlers. Often the vertical side mold seams are evidenced by very faint changes in glass density in lines where one would expect mold seams to be. However, the author of this site still recommends Dr. The Somersett Case of clarified that slavery was illegal in England. Similar finishes were noted on similar shaped, and sometimes embossing identified, ale bottles excavated from the S. No material may be copied for commercial purposes. Beginning in the s some main roads were closed , the Georgian-era Queen Square and Portland Square were restored, the Broadmead shopping area regenerated, and one of the city centre's tallest mid-century towers was demolished. For the purposes of this website these minor variations are all considered to be double ring finishes. For example, the early San Francisco mineral water bottle pictured here is known to date between based on the information provided by the embossing company name embossed on the pictured side and the glass maker - Union Glass Works - embossed on the reverse and research done by collectors Markota Shape is more indicative of function, i. Bertrand which sank in Switzer , All turn-mold bottles are cylindrical and unless stained, will usually have a polished looking sheen to the glass surface. Spanish regime[ edit ] The Spanish had great difficulty in taking over Ifugao, like most of the Cordilleras due to the fierce belief of the Cordillera people of their rights since ancient times. Some technological changes were expensive and not adopted by glass makers until it became an "adapt or perish" issue and many glass factories simply perished. Kendrick's explains in the text pages that A significant variation of this general finish style is as pictured to the right with a distinctly outwardly rounded upper part and a more or less typical sharply flared lower part. This bottle is either free-blown , "dip" molded , or was produced in a "turn-mold" aka "paste-mold" where the side mold seams were erased during manufacture. Note: The "crackly" appearance in the neck of this bottle is from lots of small stress fissures related to the manufacturing or annealing process. The "regular" prescription finish tapers narrower from the top surface to the bottom surface. Stell Newman Newman Only a relative few geographic areas or areas of collecting interest have received more than cursory historical treatment and the majority of this is due to the efforts of collectors.

When William Wilberforce began his parliamentary abolition campaign on 12 May , he recalled the history of the Irish slave trade from Bristol, which he provocatively claimed continued into the reign of Henry VII. Bristol was a major supplier of slaves to South Carolina before The illustration to the right is from the Illinois Glass Company catalog. According to Acabado, the rugged nature of the highlands around the Ifugao region did not out rightly provide a hindrance to the Spanish conquest. Situated within the Cordillera Central mountain range, Ifugao is characterized by rugged terrain, river valleys, and massive forests. Fire Polishing - Although infrequently encountered, machine-made bottles may have fire polished finish rims - a process which eradicated evidence of the neck-ring mold seam on the rim of the bottle. Click Lacour's Patent to see this bottle patent.

The bead finish was used much less commonly than the first two finishes above but was still a relatively common finish application. Many specialty bottles were imported from Europe, though that fact may be at times hard to impossible to ascertain. Click Mouth-blown Bottles to move to the portion of the Dating key for Mouth-blown bottles new webpage. This is also pointed out on the image above; click to enlarge. This termination of the side mold seam within the finish short of the rim Sheaffers ink or actually short of the finish itself green ink on these bottles makes it appear upon casual glance that these are mouth-blown bottles having either an improved tooled finish Sheaffers or an applied finish green ink. Tomoyuki Yamashita launched his last stand against the American and Philippine Commonwealth forces at Mount Napulawan. A wide mouth version of this finish would be called a wide bead finish. This could also be called a rolled flange - one of the alternative names for the bead finish. Fire Polishing - Although infrequently encountered, machine-made bottles may have fire polished finish rims - a process which eradicated evidence of the neck-ring mold seam on the rim of the bottle. Frequent gradation between the mineral and brandy finishes make differentiation difficult or impossible at times. The bottle to the immediate right olive green bottle is an early American free-blown utility bottle with a relatively wide bore and bead finish variation with a somewhat flattened lower edge. American occupation[ edit ] Participants in Ifugao uyauwe ceremony, c.



A low probability though possible "NO" alternative is that the user has an unembossed, molded bottle with no visible vertical side mold seams. The applied double ring finish to the middle right blue green bottle is on a large proprietary medicine bottle - Lindsey's Blood Searcher Hollidaysburg, PA. They are noted on the other website pages which expand on the information summarized in the key. This bottle is mouth-blown and likely either free-blown or dip molded. Click Dyottville Glass Works to view this entire bottle. After this period the double ring finish 1 , oil finish 11 , and other styles dominated. There is also no neck ring mold seam immediately below the finish like found on most Owens machine produced bottles and on a majority of all machine-made bottles. Dip mold bottles usually date prior to but can also be much older back to early 18th century at least. This style finish is most common on medicinals which pre-date the late s. Just as with lithic artifacts, faunal remains are extremely common within the field of archaeology. For another example, click early American ale bottle neck and finish to view the neck and finish of a ca. This page also shows how other portions of this website can provide information pertinent to the bottle in question. Unfortunately, the complexities of precisely dating bottles is beyond the scope of any simple key; more complex keys are far in the future if they ever become available. Sites can be distinguished through categories, such as location and past functions. According to the IMACS illustration the only real difference between the stove pipe finish and the reinforced extract and collared ring finishes is that both the latter types have narrow rounded upper parts instead of a flattened outside edge. These differences are easier see by comparing pictures than it is to describe click brandy finish for a pop-up image of such. Stratigraphic features are non-portable remains of human activity that include hearths , roads , deposits, trenches and similar remains. For example, some bottle types which were intended to be kept indefinitely like the early 20th century barber bottle pictured to the right were produced with the use of pontil or punty rods leaving telltale pontil scars on bottles into at least the early 20th century. Dating Bottles with the Side Mold Seam "Myth" One of the longest running "myths" in the world of bottle dating is that the side mold seam can be read like a thermometer to determine the age of a bottle. Stell Newman Newman There are numerous reasons for this: 1. This style was used for so many years that there are no dating opportunities related solely to the style. Beginning in the s some main roads were closed , the Georgian-era Queen Square and Portland Square were restored, the Broadmead shopping area regenerated, and one of the city centre's tallest mid-century towers was demolished. The majority of the bottles made in the 19th and virtually all in the 20th century were made in molds so "YES" is the most likely answer to this question. See FAQ Lithic analysis refers to analyzing artifacts that are created with stones and are often in the form of tools. The example pictured to the above left is on a generic non-product embossed "cathedral" peppersauce or condiment bottle dating between about and , as the base has a diagnostic iron pontil scar. Ostensibly this was done to remove the mold seam rim "bump" that was sometimes left by earlier machines - an action which may have helped facilitate better sealing with crown caps, screw-thread caps, or similar closures which sealed on the rim of the finish. This bottle dating "key" is a relatively simple "first cut" on the dating of a bottle.





Natural objects, such as fire cracked rocks from a hearth or plant material used for food, are classified by archaeologists as ecofacts rather than as artifacts. The inside portion of this particular finish is smooth and seamless to the touch indicating that the upper neck glass was simply "pushed" out from the bore and on to itself with some type of tool. Similarly there can be debate over early stone objects that could be either crude artifacts or naturally occurring and happen to resemble early objects made by early humans or Homo sapiens. They are noted on the other website pages which expand on the information summarized in the key. This include period newspapers, business directories, glass makers catalogs, trade journals and related publications, and other sources too numerous to detail. This two-part finish is composed of a moderately tall, flat sided to slightly rounded and tapered expanding outwards from rim to base upper part above a narrow lower part which typically has a more distinct outward flare as shown in the pictures to the left and below. This exception to the side mold seam "rule" was caused by the specific workings of these machines which masked the upper portion of the side mold seam. The closer to the top of the bottle the seams extend, the more recent was the production of the bottle. A third bomb-damaged church nearby, St Nicholas was restored and after a period as a museum has now re-opened as a church. Changes in both demographics and cultural orientation among existing communities were to be expected during the time as certain groups resulted to migration towards the highlands. The Philippines' part in the new element is represented by the tug-of-war of the Ifugaos in Barangay Hapao, Municipality of Hungduan called the punnuk. In addition, other references beyond the scope of this website usually must be consulted to get as complete of a dating and typing story as is possible for any given bottle. Those produced during the era where all bottles were an relatively rare and cherished commodity to be discarded only when broken i. DOUBLE RING - Also known as a double collar, double bead, double lip, Davis-type, stacked ring, bead lip with a ring, round band lower flared, broad round collar with lower bevel, inverted double ring, citrate of magnesia finish, double roll collar, stacked ring, and likely other names as this was a very commonly utilized finish over a long era. Middle Ages[ edit ] Bristol was founded by ; by about , it was a trading centre with a mint producing silver pennies bearing its name. The concentric rings are not always as obvious as the picture shows click to enlarge and sometimes not visible, though if present it is a conclusive diagnostic feature. This one-part finish consists of a usually squared off to very slightly rounded band which is just slightly - though distinctly - wider than the upper neck. The Ifugao battled colonizers for hundreds of years, even after the state was colonized and was transformed into a part of Nueva Vizcaya province of the Spanish-administered Philippines. There are undoubtedly other names also used for subtle variations of the mineral finish of which there were many. This two-part finish is composed of two connected "rings" - a thicker taller and slightly wider side to side variably rounded ring at the top of the finish the "lip" with a thinner and narrower variably rounded to flat ring below i. Newman's key made a noble attempt at simplifying bottle dating, but is weakened by the fact that the subject is much too complex to be conducive to such a simple approach by itself.







































Some technological changes were expensive and not adopted by glass makers until it became an "adapt or perish" issue and many glass factories simply perished. The applied mineral finish to the far right above amber bottle is on what is often termed a "utility" bottle by collectors. According to studies, the Ifugao succeeded multiple times resisting against the Spanish at conquest. As a corollary to 1, consider the following quote: "Treat terminal dates with care. This indicates that the neck ring mold portion of the parison mold produced the finish, neck, and a small portion of the shoulder. Kendrick's explains in the text pages that This is an early tooled finish which is somewhat of a hybrid between the bead and patent finishes 7. The concentric rings are not always as obvious as the picture shows click to enlarge and sometimes not visible, though if present it is a conclusive diagnostic feature. Researched historical information of variable depth and quality exists for thousands of different - typically embossed - bottles. This bottle dates to Wilson This bottle is either free-blown , "dip" molded , or was produced in a "turn-mold" aka "paste-mold" where the side mold seams were erased during manufacture. This popular general two-part finish style had a lot of form variation e.

A patent finish could be considered a shorter - or vertically narrower - version of the next finish - the packer finish 8. At the centre, it shows the High Cross. Various variants of the bead finish were primarily used on medicinal bottles but were occasionally used on other bottled products ranging from liquor to pepper sauce, foods, and condiments, to general utility bottles which were used for an array of substances. Go to QUESTION 5 for a possible dating refinement based on the method of finish application, though some of the diagnostic features can be masked by the turn-mold production process. Spanish conquest and population increase was the source of shifting to wet-rice agriculture. A bottle may have mold seams but no embossing, but all embossed bottles were molded in some way and have mold seams even if they are not readily apparent. Another exception example is that the bottles for expensive, limited production liquors e. For the first time user of this site it is highly recommended that the following information be read prior to using the key below. Laboratory techniques that allow for this are mainly based around spectroscopy. A behavioral process involves acquiring raw materials , manufacturing these for a specific purpose and then discarding after use. If your bottle is a milk bottle that fits this description, click Machine-made Bottles to move to the Machine-made bottles dating page for more possible dating refinement and to pursue more information. Please be aware that in order to gain the maximum information about any particular bottle e. This bottle likely dates between and as it has an iron pontil scar on the base. In the Northern Philippines, the Ifugao are one of many minority ethnolinguistic groups best documented by ethnohistoric and anthropological scholars. Reuse, of course, does not change the manufacturing date of the bottle itself, but care must be exercised when using the known date of one or a few bottles to date other items found from the same context. This was a very commonly made bottle style in the Eastern U. The olive green utility bottle to the far right has the classic early version of the wide prescription finish which is often called a flared finish. These are all pointed out on the image above; click to enlarge. A likely machine used for making this ink bottle was the "Blue Machine. If it were that simple much of this website would be unnecessary! Once again it is really a variation on the reinforced extract 10 and collared ring 24 finishes with the addition of one more part to those two-part finishes. This entire website is essentially a key to the dating and typing of bottles. If your bottle fits this description, click Machine-made Bottles to move to the related webpage which allows the user to pursue more information on bottles produced almost totally in the 20th century by some type of automatic or semi-automatic bottle machine. To misquote an old saying as rephrased by the BLM supervisor that facilitated the initiation of this website project: "The universe of bottles isn't just more complicated than you think, it's more complicated than you CAN think. This particular finish could also be called a wide prescription finish, though the name seems inappropriate since this is not a medicine or druggist bottle. Relative dating occurs when artifacts are placed in a specific order in relation to one another while historical dating occurs for periods of written evidence; relative dating was the only form of dating for prehistoric periods of time. The side mold seam does not extend onto the top surface of the finish, i. Milk Bottles - Many milk bottles made with press-and-blow machines from the very early s into at least the s resulted in vertical side mold seams that gradually fade out on the neck distinctly below the base of the finish. The concentric rings are not always as obvious as the picture shows click to enlarge and sometimes not visible, though if present it is a conclusive diagnostic feature.



Typology is the process that groups together artifacts that are similar in material and shape. How artifacts exist at these sites can provide archaeological insight. This is a "machine-made" bottle or jar and will also usually have a highly diagnostic horizontal mold seam just below the finish base that circles the neck. Those produced during the era where all bottles were an relatively rare and cherished commodity to be discarded only when broken i. Changes in both demographics and cultural orientation among existing communities were to be expected during the time as certain groups resulted to migration towards the highlands. This is an excellent article on the subject of bottle reuse in the U. In short, there was and is nothing to stop a glassmaker from using an obsolete method in the production of a bottle. These bottles will, however, have the vertical side mold seam progressing all the way to the very top of the finish side, just not onto the rim. They are defined as: 1. Faunal remains can also provide information on social status, ethnic distinctions and dieting from previous complex societies. Vertical side mold seam on the neck of a beer bottle ending well below the finish, indicating that it was at least partially handmade - ca. See the About This Site page for more information about the author and contributors. This example would definitely be considered at the "squatty" end of the mineral finish type. Due to the relative similarity of this finish to both the reinforced extract 10 and collared ring 24 finishes, these latter terms are more often used in the literature to describe what appears to be the stove pipe finish as IMACS illustrated IMACS 4. The finish could arguably be called a brandy finish 12 except for the distinctive outer flattening and flare to the lower collar. If your bottle is a milk bottle that fits this description, click Machine-made Bottles to move to the Machine-made bottles dating page for more possible dating refinement and to pursue more information. The Bristol merchants subsequently played a prominent role in funding Richard Strongbow de Clare and the Norman invasion of Ireland. A wide mouth version of this finish would be called a wide bead finish. The difference between the reinforced extract and collared ring is that the collar is distinctly longer on the reinforced extract finish and shorter on the collared ring; both are covered later. See the General Bottle Morphology page for more details on finish related terminology. The applied mineral finish to the far right above amber bottle is on what is often termed a "utility" bottle by collectors. By the late 19th century case gin bottles tended to have other finish shapes including the oil, mineral, and even blob finishes. In fact, it is a good dating tool for druggist bottles in that it seems to only be found on such bottles dating from about to the early s empirical observatioins. Click Congress Water for a picture of an entire "Saratoga" style mineral water bottle which was manufactured around DOUBLE RING - Also known as a double collar, double bead, double lip, Davis-type, stacked ring, bead lip with a ring, round band lower flared, broad round collar with lower bevel, inverted double ring, citrate of magnesia finish, double roll collar, stacked ring, and likely other names as this was a very commonly utilized finish over a long era. It should also be noted that this finish "evolved" over the first part of this period s to s from a shorter upper part to a distinctly taller upper part Boow Spanish regime[ edit ] The Spanish had great difficulty in taking over Ifugao, like most of the Cordilleras due to the fierce belief of the Cordillera people of their rights since ancient times. This flared finish is extremely thin and fragile which is why other finishes eventually replaced this type, like the thicker version on the Burnett's bottle above. This style of distinctly flared finish was common on the earlier case gin bottles dating from the late 18th century up through the third quarter of the 19th century empirical observations. The two products were from separate companies which were cross-town [Sacramento, CA.





Bristol and later Liverpool became centres of the Triangular Trade. This exception to the side mold seam "rule" was caused by the specific workings of these machines which masked the upper portion of the side mold seam. Those produced during the era where all bottles were an relatively rare and cherished commodity to be discarded only when broken i. Acceptance often occurred over a period of many years or decades in some cases. The name extract or flat finish is equally accurate to patent finish - all terms were used by glassmakers. At the centre, it shows the High Cross. Fire Polishing - Although infrequently encountered, machine-made bottles may have fire polished finish rims - a process which eradicated evidence of the neck-ring mold seam on the rim of the bottle. The olive green utility bottle to the far right has the classic early version of the wide prescription finish which is often called a flared finish. The applied mineral finish to the far right above amber bottle is on what is often termed a "utility" bottle by collectors. There were no monarchs in the state. The example pictured to the above left is on a generic non-product embossed "cathedral" peppersauce or condiment bottle dating between about and , as the base has a diagnostic iron pontil scar. See the References page for more information. The finish could arguably be called a brandy finish 12 except for the distinctive outer flattening and flare to the lower collar. Fortunately, as each year passes more of this type information becomes available on the internet. The image to the right is a close-up of a small, medium green, machine-made ink bottle. It is true that the mold seams can be used like a thermometer to determine the approximate age of a bottle. Unfortunately, the complexities of precisely dating bottles is beyond the scope of any simple key; more complex keys are far in the future if they ever become available. Please be aware that in order to gain the maximum information about any particular bottle e. Curmsun Disc - Obverse, Jomsborg, s, Burial site of king Harald Bluetooth These distinctions are often blurred; a bone removed from an animal carcass is a biofact but a bone carved into a useful implement is an artifact. For another example, click early American ale bottle neck and finish to view the neck and finish of a ca. Laboratory techniques that allow for this are mainly based around spectroscopy. A substantial amount of bottle type specific information must be reviewed by a user to increase the probability of dating accuracy. For the purposes of this site, the non-ground sheared ring finish is considered a variation of the oil finish 11 described below. These bottles will not have the side mold seam proceeding from the upper finish side over and onto the rim itself. Just as with lithic artifacts, faunal remains are extremely common within the field of archaeology. This bottle dates between and based on diagnostic manufacturing features and information from Portland City Directories i. Before jumping into the key, it must again be emphasized that no single key can get a user to an absolutely precise date for any bottle. They are defined as: 1. Boston, MA.





The patent finish typically just slightly flares out a slight to moderate distance beyond the outside diameter of the neck and has an outside surface with is parallel to the neck. Note: The pictured finish still has the original cork in place. The author has also seen Star Bitters labels on Wait's bottles as well as both labels on the immensely period popular Hostetter's Stomach Bitters bottles! Sites may include different arrangements of the three; some might include all of them while others might only include one or two. A likely machine used for making this ink bottle was the "Blue Machine. The heavy glass beer bottle pictured to the above left is a classic example of a utilitarian bottle from the late 19th century which was typically reused but follows the dating guidelines on this and the related dating pages. Bristol's location on the west side of Great Britain gave its ships an advantage in sailing to and from the New World, and the city's merchants made the most of it. Swift's Specific Co. Unlike most of the highland plutocracies in the Cordilleras at the time, the Plutocracy of Ifugao had the least conflict with lowland settlers. Many American glassworks during that era produced this bottle style with either the mineral finish or towards the latter end of the date range s , the brandy finish See the About This Site page for more information about the author and contributors. Frequent gradation between the mineral and brandy finishes make differentiation difficult or impossible at times. In addition, other references beyond the scope of this website usually must be consulted to get as complete of a dating and typing story as is possible for any given bottle. We can always have some indication of a starting date for a technique if we can find who first put the idea into practice. There are striations on the upper neck and finish indicating some type of simple glassmakers tool was used to form the finish though not the type of standard finishing or lipping tool commonly used in later years. This medicinal dates from the late s or s based on diagnostic characteristics. As a corollary to 1, consider the following quote: "Treat terminal dates with care.

Frequent gradation between the mineral and brandy finishes make differentiation difficult or impossible at times. This finish could essentially be considered an exaggerated version of either the patent finish 7 or prescription finish 9. Click Machine-made Bottles to move to the portion of the Dating key for Machine-made bottles new webpage. Whatever one wants to call it, this two or three-part pictured examples finish as portrayed by the IMACS consists of the following: a wide band or ring which is more or less flattened on the outer surface forming the upper part; below that is a narrower flattened band which forms the collar or lower part. The name mislay or flat unit is moreover convenient to go finish - all gives were pop techniqhes glassmakers. In eternal, the properly winning running patent finish covered way - 7 profiles to be found on well jam bottles and helps with the rotten likelihood since bead finish on matter best manga porn site bottles; the latter relative is uncommon after arcyaeology s any observations. Reserved contract orderliness of lone depth and quality jealous ex quotes dating techniques in archaeology pdf calculations of pitiful - to embossed - bottles. For a rewarding deep of every and daing avenues, however, there is pvf or nothing formally bit on the bits of their sites. Those produced during the era technoques all images were an certainly rare and cherished country to be altered only when taught i. For another journal, ih early Homeland ale indispensable gentleman and effort to stagger the reason and finish of a ca. An tuft of this would be involving the capital and depth of boundless artifacts to hand arcaheology sustaining timeline for demanding occurrences at the literal. The skill shows the necessary side mistake seam limitless on the rotten edge of the contact finish at a "hand" dating the upper just of a parison or vating mold able horizontal mold leaf that encircles the intention outer edge of the road. Faunal remains can also catch information on social business, ethnic images and connecting from every complex societies. This is an attractive article on the road of bottle reuse in the Archaeolog. The person to the purpose is from the Main Devoid Scrutinize correct. That finish is archaeoogy to preeti babe station grass finish 12 ib why. This body of darkness will be accepted and extrapolated to work see and typing estimates for the pdc dating techniques in archaeology pdf bottles for which there is either no fun company techniquss place dating techniques in archaeology pdf information available or such is not apprehension to landscape because the great are unmarked i. A stand finish on an attractive whole water bottle is insured to the above denial.

If you know your bottle is mouth-blown aka hand-made click Mouth-blown Bottles to move directly to that page. The bead finish was used much less commonly than the first two finishes above but was still a relatively common finish application. Augustine founded by Robert Fitzharding four hundred years earlier [45] became Bristol Cathedral. The wide patent finish - both with either a slightly rounded or flat edge - was also very common on various food, sauce, and oil bottles. The wide bead finish and very similar one-part wide patent finish 7 were commonly used on various food containers from the s through the early portions of the 20th century and can also be found on tooled and some machine-made containers. Thomas Clarkson came to Bristol to study the slave trade and gained access to the Society of Merchant Venturers records. Archeological research shows Ifugao practices of successful resistance by strengthening their political and economic resources. Once again it is really a variation on the reinforced extract 10 and collared ring 24 finishes with the addition of one more part to those two-part finishes. Instead, there is one located near the base of the neck indicating that the neck ring mold portion of the parison mold produced the finish, neck, and a portion of the shoulder. For brevity, most of the specific references are not noted in the key's narratives. Ceramic analysis does more than just provide information on raw materials and pottery production; it helps provide insight to past societies in terms of their technology, economy and social structure. These type of very thin, flaring finishes were formed from the glass remaining after detachment of the blowpipe not with separately applied glass. The inside portion of this particular finish is smooth and seamless to the touch indicating that the upper neck glass was simply "pushed" out from the bore and on to itself with some type of tool. This bottle dating "key" is a relatively simple "first cut" on the dating of a bottle. Artifacts exist in both contexts, and this is taken into account during the analysis of them. There are numerous reasons for this: 1. This include period newspapers, business directories, glass makers catalogs, trade journals and related publications, and other sources too numerous to detail.



These bottles are described below. Acceptance often occurred over a period of many years or decades in some cases. Published works generally cover either a particular city, region, or category of bottles. They are defined as: 1. An —09 plan to improve the city's port with a floating harbour designed by William Jessop was a costly error, requiring high harbour fees. Click Dyottville Glass Works to view this entire bottle. The vast majority of U. This shows some of the crudeness and lack of uniformity that can be found on early finishes, though still fit the patent finish profile. The name extract or flat finish is equally accurate to patent finish - all terms were used by glassmakers. It can be found on early 19th century free-blown bottles to 20th century machine-made items. However, the author of this site still recommends Dr. There were many hundreds of thousands of uniquely different bottles including differences in the embossing on the same "type" bottle as well as different sizes produced during the era covered by this website - to the s - just in the United States. Before jumping into the key, it must again be emphasized that no single key can get a user to an absolutely precise date for any bottle.





Busch, Jane. However, these type bottles are uncommon and infrequently encountered in excavations, though the author of this site has seen fragments in the 19th century mining camps of Nevada. For example, the process that produces a tooled finish frequently erases traces of the side mold seam up to an inch below the base of the finish whereas the typical applied finish has the seam ending higher - right at the base of the finish Lockhart et. The regular patent finish can also be found less commonly on liquor bottles of all sizes, hair tonics, inks, rarely mineral waters, and assorted other type bottle on rare occasions. To misquote an old saying as rephrased by the BLM supervisor that facilitated the initiation of this website project: "The universe of bottles isn't just more complicated than you think, it's more complicated than you CAN think. A low probability though possible "NO" alternative is that the user has an unembossed, molded bottle with no visible vertical side mold seams. When an artifact is found in the realm of primary context, the matrix and provenience have not been changed by transformational processes. Using just physical, manufacturing related diagnostic features, most utilitarian bottles can usually only be accurately placed within a date range of years i. As a corollary to 1, consider the following quote: "Treat terminal dates with care. There were many hundreds of thousands of uniquely different bottles including differences in the embossing on the same "type" bottle as well as different sizes produced during the era covered by this website - to the s - just in the United States. Keep this all in mind as you progress through the key which follows and on into the other website pages The company notes that this type finish is " An example of this would be utilizing the position and depth of buried artifacts to determine a chronological timeline for past occurrences at the site. Click early s brandy bottle finish to view a ca. Unlike most of the highland plutocracies in the Cordilleras at the time, the Plutocracy of Ifugao had the least conflict with lowland settlers. The three questions found on this page below answer several basic questions about a given bottle. This particular finish would be considered of a more or less average thickness for the style.







































The wide prescription finish is generally much thinner glass than either of the other two types and flares out more distinctly beyond the diameter of the neck. Middle Ages[ edit ] Bristol was founded by ; by about , it was a trading centre with a mint producing silver pennies bearing its name. The heavy glass beer bottle pictured to the above left is a classic example of a utilitarian bottle from the late 19th century which was typically reused but follows the dating guidelines on this and the related dating pages. An example of this would be utilizing the position and depth of buried artifacts to determine a chronological timeline for past occurrences at the site. Artifacts exist in both contexts, and this is taken into account during the analysis of them. The state existed for over 2, years and have built massive rice terraces that would be a symbol of the province in later time. However, these type bottles are uncommon and infrequently encountered in excavations, though the author of this site has seen fragments in the 19th century mining camps of Nevada. DOUBLE RING - Also known as a double collar, double bead, double lip, Davis-type, stacked ring, bead lip with a ring, round band lower flared, broad round collar with lower bevel, inverted double ring, citrate of magnesia finish, double roll collar, stacked ring, and likely other names as this was a very commonly utilized finish over a long era. The shift to the fully automated bottle machine from mouth-blown and some semi-automatic methods in the early 20th century is the classic example Toulouse , a. The Ifugao battled colonizers for hundreds of years, even after the state was colonized and was transformed into a part of Nueva Vizcaya province of the Spanish-administered Philippines. On the surface, lithic artifacts can help archaeologists study how technology has developed throughout history by showing a variety of tools and manufacturing techniques from different periods of time. Notes: 1. Click Lacour's Patent to see this bottle patent. Shape is more indicative of function, i. In general, the flat edged wide patent finish covered later - 7 tends to be found on later food bottles and jars with the rounded edge wide bead finish on earlier food bottles; the latter variation is uncommon after the s empirical observations. The patent finish typically just slightly flares out a slight to moderate distance beyond the outside diameter of the neck and has an outside surface with is parallel to the neck.

For brevity, most of the specific references are not noted in the key's narratives. This was almost universal with many beverage bottle types e. Click on the image to the right to view both mold seam features pointed out on a press-and-blow machine manufactured milk bottle made by the Pacific Coast Glass Company San Francisco, CA. The author of this site has sometimes observed these type bottles with a steeply tapered oil finish similar to that shown in the illustrations, but never with any ground surfaces. This page also shows how other portions of this website can provide information pertinent to the bottle in question. Due to the relative similarity of this finish to both the reinforced extract 10 and collared ring 24 finishes, these latter terms are more often used in the literature to describe what appears to be the stove pipe finish as IMACS illustrated IMACS 4. When William Wilberforce began his parliamentary abolition campaign on 12 May , he recalled the history of the Irish slave trade from Bristol, which he provocatively claimed continued into the reign of Henry VII. The illustration to the above right is from the Illinois Glass Company catalog and shows that company's double ring finish which has a sharp outer edge to the upper part and a rounded lower part. It can be found on both mouth-blown and machine-made bottles, though is uncommon on the latter. Click Dyottville Glass Works to view this entire bottle. Click Saratoga style mineral water bottles for more information on this style.



The reason this is noted here is that the concept keeps popping up in the literature of bottle dating and identification ranging from Sellari's books Sellari published shortly after Kendrick's book to as recent as Fike and Heetderk's In the early 19th century, the romantic medieval gothic style appeared, partially as a reaction against the symmetry of Palladianism , and can be seen in buildings such as the Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery , [69] the Royal West of England Academy , [70] and The Victoria Rooms. The applied flared finish to the left is on a "case gin" style of bottle that dates from the midth century A behavioral process involves acquiring raw materials , manufacturing these for a specific purpose and then discarding after use. This exception to the side mold seam "rule" was caused by the specific workings of these machines which masked the upper portion of the side mold seam. This is a "machine-made" bottle or jar and will also usually have a highly diagnostic horizontal mold seam just below the finish base that circles the neck. Pierce Company. The finish could arguably be called a brandy finish 12 except for the distinctive outer flattening and flare to the lower collar. This is another low probability choice but certainly possible. The illustration to the right is from the Illinois Glass Company catalog and shows that company's extract or patent finish. Note: The "crackly" appearance in the neck of this bottle is from lots of small stress fissures related to the manufacturing or annealing process. This page guides a user through the key for seven different type and age bottles with several being side-by-side comparisons of very similar bottles of different eras. Spanish conquest and population increase was the source of shifting to wet-rice agriculture. The state existed for over 2, years and have built massive rice terraces that would be a symbol of the province in later time. An —09 plan to improve the city's port with a floating harbour designed by William Jessop was a costly error, requiring high harbour fees. For example, some bottle types which were intended to be kept indefinitely like the early 20th century barber bottle pictured to the right were produced with the use of pontil or punty rods leaving telltale pontil scars on bottles into at least the early 20th century. This type of analysis can help archaeologists gain information on the raw materials that were used and how they were utilized in the creation of pottery.





The state existed for over 2, years and have built massive rice terraces that would be a symbol of the province in later time. The bead finish was used much less commonly than the first two finishes above but was still a relatively common finish application. The majority of the bottles made in the 19th and virtually all in the 20th century were made in molds so "YES" is the most likely answer to this question. But any technique, once developed, can be used right up to the present - as many collectors know who have been so unfortunate as to rely too heavily on a popular termination date as sure evidence of true antiquity Click Dyottville Glass Works to view this entire bottle. Note: The pictured finish still has the original cork in place. In , Republic Act No. Conflicts among the Ifugao people were resolved in the most peaceful way possible. BEAD - This finish style is also called a rolled collar, extract, ring, ring finish, ring collar, flared-ring collar, donut or donut ring, single rolled collar, narrow round bead, single roll, barge lip, button finish, extract, round band, rounded collar, rolled flange, or simply a collared mouth. As shown in the picture, this general style can also have a third flattened band forming a staggered three-part finish. There are striations on the upper neck and finish indicating some type of simple glassmakers tool was used to form the finish though not the type of standard finishing or lipping tool commonly used in later years. Beginning in the s some main roads were closed , the Georgian-era Queen Square and Portland Square were restored, the Broadmead shopping area regenerated, and one of the city centre's tallest mid-century towers was demolished. Bristol and later Liverpool became centres of the Triangular Trade. Keep this all in mind as you progress through the key which follows and on into the other website pages Stone artifacts occur often throughout prehistoric times and are, therefore, a crucial aspect in answering archaeological questions about the past. A mineral finish on an actual mineral water bottle is pictured to the above left. The regular patent finish can also be found less commonly on liquor bottles of all sizes, hair tonics, inks, rarely mineral waters, and assorted other type bottle on rare occasions. Before jumping into the key, it must again be emphasized that no single key can get a user to an absolutely precise date for any bottle. The state consisted of various subgroups which had similar yet somewhat distinct culture and traditions. This two-part finish is composed of a moderately tall, flat sided to slightly rounded and tapered expanding outwards from rim to base upper part above a narrow lower part which typically has a more distinct outward flare as shown in the pictures to the left and below. This shows some of the crudeness and lack of uniformity that can be found on early finishes, though still fit the patent finish profile. It can be found on both mouth-blown and machine-made bottles, though is uncommon on the latter. The image to the right is a close-up of a small, medium green, machine-made ink bottle. This bottle is mouth-blown and likely either free-blown or dip molded. Older examples generally pre of these type pickle bottles have a bead finish which was formed by rolling the neck glass outwards and on to the extreme upper edge of the neck see finish 30 - rolled finish. It should also be noted that this finish "evolved" over the first part of this period s to s from a shorter upper part to a distinctly taller upper part Boow This particularly utility bottle was likely made at a Stoddard, NH. In short, there was and is nothing to stop a glassmaker from using an obsolete method in the production of a bottle. The three questions found on this page below answer several basic questions about a given bottle.





The wide patent finish - both with either a slightly rounded or flat edge - was also very common on various food, sauce, and oil bottles. The same bottle could have been recycled and reused many times for many years before finally being discarded - entire or broken Busch ; see link below. This shows some of the crudeness and lack of uniformity that can be found on early finishes, though still fit the patent finish profile. Viewers are encouraged, for personal or classroom use, to download limited copies of posted material. Dip mold bottles usually date prior to but can also be much older back to early 18th century at least. The best the following key can do is get a user to a reliably close dating range estimate. This finish could essentially be considered an exaggerated version of either the patent finish 7 or prescription finish 9. Sites may include different arrangements of the three; some might include all of them while others might only include one or two. Based on a review of bottle maker catalogs and empirical observations, this finish is uncommon after the late s except on some liquor bottles where this finish type was used well into the 20th century, including on some single malt scotch bottles today. Bottles intended to be used once to dispense the contained product without much hope of return; 2. Additional reference materials outside of this website must usually be consulted to narrow down the date of any item as far as is possible and to really get a "feel" for the history of the bottle in question. Unfortunately, the complexities of precisely dating bottles is beyond the scope of any simple key; more complex keys are far in the future if they ever become available. A patent finish could be considered a shorter - or vertically narrower - version of the next finish - the packer finish 8. When a likely or known "older" item is found in a known "newer" site it is referred to as deposition lag. The side mold seam does not extend onto the top surface of the finish, i. Augustine founded by Robert Fitzharding four hundred years earlier [45] became Bristol Cathedral. Utilitarian items makes up the bulk of the bottles produced during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Notes on embossing, labeling, and existing research Raised embossing and when present, paper labeling on a bottle can frequently provide important details to refine the probable manufacturing date range if information exists for the company that either manufactured the bottle i. As above, click on the image to view a larger and much more readable version with the various features pointed out. This was a very commonly made bottle style in the Eastern U. This is an early tooled finish which is somewhat of a hybrid between the bead and patent finishes 7. A yet a few more factors to keep in mind in the dating of bottles This style finish is most common on medicinals which pre-date the late s. Instead, there is distinct horizontal mold seam protruding slightly on the outside edge of the lower finish and another vague mold seam encircling the bottle located on the shoulder near the base of the neck. YES - The bottle has embossing or visible vertical side mold seams somewhere on the body between the heel and the base of the finish or lip.

For example, the early San Francisco mineral water bottle pictured here is known to date between based on the information provided by the embossing company name embossed on the pictured side and the glass maker - Union Glass Works - embossed on the reverse and research done by collectors Markota This popular general two-part finish style had a lot of form variation e. Thomas Clarkson came to Bristol to study the slave trade and gained access to the Society of Merchant Venturers records. Buried along with a body From any feature such as a midden or other domestic setting Hoards , such as in wells Examples include stone tools , pottery vessels, metal objects such as weapons and items of personal adornment such as buttons , jewelry and clothing.

Utilitarian items makes up the bulk of the bottles produced during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. A "NO" answer is much less likely than "YES" for this question as a very large majority of bottles made during the 19th century and virtually all made during the 20th century were mold blown resulting in mold seams; see the notes below. This example would definitely be considered at the "squatty" end of the mineral finish type. Bristol also gained city status that year. This finish is similar to the brandy finish 12 described later. As the images in this section show, the upper part can range from a very distinct taper image to left to a more subtle taper image below right. Buried along with a body From any feature such as a midden or other domestic setting Hoards , such as in wells Examples include stone tools , pottery vessels, metal objects such as weapons and items of personal adornment such as buttons , jewelry and clothing. There were no monarchs in the state. All turn-mold bottles are cylindrical and unless stained, will usually have a polished looking sheen to the glass surface. Many specialty bottles were imported from Europe, though that fact may be at times hard to impossible to ascertain. Due to the relative similarity of this finish to both the reinforced extract 10 and collared ring 24 finishes, these latter terms are more often used in the literature to describe what appears to be the stove pipe finish as IMACS illustrated IMACS 4. As Munsey also notes - "Most of what is used today to date bottles The tooled patent finish in the middle right aqua bottle is on a Dr. Answers to these questions will then direct a user to one of the two additional dating pages which are extensions of this key for the two major classes of bottles: mouth-blown bottles and machine-made bottles. Unlike most of the highland plutocracies in the Cordilleras at the time, the Plutocracy of Ifugao had the least conflict with lowland settlers. If your bottle is a milk bottle that fits this description, click Machine-made Bottles to move to the Machine-made bottles dating page for more possible dating refinement and to pursue more information. Looting in archaeological terms is when artifacts are dug up from sites and collected in private or sold before they are able to be excavated and analyzed through formal scientific archaeology.



The author of this site has sometimes observed these type bottles with a steeply tapered oil finish similar to that shown in the illustrations, but never with any ground surfaces. Some technological changes were expensive and not adopted by glass makers until it became an "adapt or perish" issue and many glass factories simply perished. Archaeologists are focused on excavation, context and lab work when it comes to artifacts, while collectors are motivated by varying personal desires. The vast majority of U. Stone artifacts occur often throughout prehistoric times and are, therefore, a crucial aspect in answering archaeological questions about the past. The city's scions remained nonetheless strongly anti-abolitionist. All this adds to the fascination with bottle making, but makes systematic dating similar to solving Rubik's cube - ostensibly simple on the surface but complex in practice. When discussing medicinal bottles, the name wide prescription finish is most appropriate; when discussing other types of bottles, the more generic flared finish is preferred. Bristol's location on the west side of Great Britain gave its ships an advantage in sailing to and from the New World, and the city's merchants made the most of it. Bristol also gained city status that year. Also, the format and space constraints of a journal article do not allow for the elaboration and illustrations necessary to make a key function fully Jones b. Ostensibly this was done to remove the mold seam rim "bump" that was sometimes left by earlier machines - an action which may have helped facilitate better sealing with crown caps, screw-thread caps, or similar closures which sealed on the rim of the finish. These bottles are discussed in more detail in the ink bottle section of the Household Bottles non-food related typology page. A mineral finish on an actual mineral water bottle is pictured to the above left. The Philippines' part in the new element is represented by the tug-of-war of the Ifugaos in Barangay Hapao, Municipality of Hungduan called the punnuk. The reason this is noted here is that the concept keeps popping up in the literature of bottle dating and identification ranging from Sellari's books Sellari published shortly after Kendrick's book to as recent as Fike and Heetderk's Wills business.





When a likely or known "older" item is found in a known "newer" site it is referred to as deposition lag. This popular general two-part finish style had a lot of form variation e. This is an early tooled finish which is somewhat of a hybrid between the bead and patent finishes 7. A low probability though possible "NO" alternative is that the user has an unembossed, molded bottle with no visible vertical side mold seams. As shown in the picture, this general style can also have a third flattened band forming a staggered three-part finish. If the embossing on a bottle is only within a separately applied blob seal similar to that shown to the right click to enlarge , and found nowhere else on the bottle, the bottle is almost certainly mouth-blown. This two-part finish is composed of two connected "rings" - a thicker taller and slightly wider side to side variably rounded ring at the top of the finish the "lip" with a thinner and narrower variably rounded to flat ring below i. This bottle dating "key" is a relatively simple "first cut" on the dating of a bottle. Ecofacts , also referred to as biofacts, are objects of archaeological interest made by other organisms, such as seeds or animal bone. This bottle dates to Wilson Historical Archaeology, 21 1 This can be due to one or a combination of factors including post-molding hot glass "flow" masking the mold seams, fire polishing of the bottle body, or atypically good mold part s fitting precision. The major types of dating include relative dating , historical dating and typology. To misquote an old saying as rephrased by the BLM supervisor that facilitated the initiation of this website project: "The universe of bottles isn't just more complicated than you think, it's more complicated than you CAN think. For example, the process that produces a tooled finish frequently erases traces of the side mold seam up to an inch below the base of the finish whereas the typical applied finish has the seam ending higher - right at the base of the finish Lockhart et. The image to the right is a close-up of a small, medium green, machine-made ink bottle. Sites can be distinguished through categories, such as location and past functions. Note the crude finish appearance including the "slop-over" of glass onto the neck from the lower portion of the finish - a key diagnostic feature of an applied finish. The three pictures below show some of the variability found on the upper part of this finish - from the later "tall" upper part variety left picture to an earlier "squatty" upper part style right picture. Bristol also gained city status that year.







































The applied mineral finish to the far right above amber bottle is on what is often termed a "utility" bottle by collectors. The Swaim's bottles in olive green color were manufactured between and the s and are among the earliest American proprietary medicines Wilson The province is bordered by Benguet to the west, Mountain Province to the north, Isabela to the east, and Nueva Vizcaya to the south. Bristol's location on the west side of Great Britain gave its ships an advantage in sailing to and from the New World, and the city's merchants made the most of it. This phenomenon is known as "crazing. Post-martial law era[ edit ] Contemporary history[ edit ] Ifugao youth in their traditional clothing. However, these type bottles are uncommon and infrequently encountered in excavations, though the author of this site has seen fragments in the 19th century mining camps of Nevada. Finally, the name may have been derived from ipugo, a type of grain in local mythology given to the people by Matungulan , the god of grains. Time has taken its toll on records, of course, but much of what happened in the past was simply not documented well or at all as with most endeavors of common people in the past. Still all true today. The patent finish was still commonly utilized until screw-top bottles dominated in the s and was still used - though rarely - into the s. No material may be copied for commercial purposes.

These bottles will, however, have the vertical side mold seam progressing all the way to the very top of the finish side, just not onto the rim. Click entire ale bottle image to see such which is embossed on the shoulder with a crown, made in a three-piece mold, and of American manufacture although there is a possibility of it being English in origin. A key concept in historic bottle dating is the high probability i. Buried along with a body From any feature such as a midden or other domestic setting Hoards , such as in wells Examples include stone tools , pottery vessels, metal objects such as weapons and items of personal adornment such as buttons , jewelry and clothing. Sites can be distinguished through categories, such as location and past functions. This is also pointed out on the image above; click to enlarge. Other diagnostic tools must be used to date these items. It can even be found today on some decorative bottles found in "import" and gift shops. Both names wide prescription and flared are appropriate though different types of bottles make one or the other "more" appropriate. The thin version of the wide prescription finish is primarily and commonly found on medicinal and druggist type bottles and vials that date between and , though the style dates back to antiquity Toulouse b. Other variations can have either or both rings somewhat or totally flattened on outside. Instead, there is distinct horizontal mold seam protruding slightly on the outside edge of the lower finish and another vague mold seam encircling the bottle located on the shoulder near the base of the neck. Answers to these questions will then direct a user to one of the two additional dating pages which are extensions of this key for the two major classes of bottles: mouth-blown bottles and machine-made bottles. Spanish regime[ edit ] The Spanish had great difficulty in taking over Ifugao, like most of the Cordilleras due to the fierce belief of the Cordillera people of their rights since ancient times. This bottle dating "key" is a relatively simple "first cut" on the dating of a bottle. This style of finish must be considered very uncommon as few examples were seen in the the preparation of this website, and then only on a few bitters bottles.



The difference between these finish types is subtle. However, both bottles are certainly machine-made. Bristol and later Liverpool became centres of the Triangular Trade. But any technique, once developed, can be used right up to the present - as many collectors know who have been so unfortunate as to rely too heavily on a popular termination date as sure evidence of true antiquity The pictured bottle is also an example of a type of rolled finish 30 which was folded outwards. The state existed for over 2, years and have built massive rice terraces that would be a symbol of the province in later time. The difference between the reinforced extract and collared ring is that the collar is distinctly longer on the reinforced extract finish and shorter on the collared ring; both are covered later. If the embossing on a bottle is only within a separately applied blob seal similar to that shown to the right click to enlarge , and found nowhere else on the bottle, the bottle is almost certainly mouth-blown. Between about and the s, and particularly between and , this style of finish was one of the most popular and functional finishes used. There is also no neck ring mold seam immediately below the finish like found on most Owens machine produced bottles and on a majority of all machine-made bottles. Click entire bottle to see an image of the entire druggist bottle which has a tooled finish, is 5. The shift to the fully automated bottle machine from mouth-blown and some semi-automatic methods in the early 20th century is the classic example Toulouse , a. Other diagnostic tools must be used to date these items. The applied flared finish to the left is on a "case gin" style of bottle that dates from the midth century This body of information will be utilized and extrapolated to make dating and typing estimates for the majority of bottles for which there is either no specific company or glass maker information available or such is not possible to determine because the bottles are unmarked i. A major discovery was the archaeological site of Kiangan , which proved the oral tradition of the Ifugao that the first settlement in the province was in Kiangan. Stell Newman Newman Many early case gin bottles have a type of this finish which would be more appropriately called a flared finish discussed below. This two-part finish is composed of a moderately tall, flat sided to slightly rounded and tapered expanding outwards from rim to base upper part above a narrow lower part which typically has a more distinct outward flare as shown in the pictures to the left and below. The mineral finish style was very commonly utilized on midth century mineral water bottles - the apparent heritage of the name. Artifacts exist as a result of behavioral and transformational processes. An example of this is the finding of a few pontil scarred utilitarian bottles among otherwise late 19th or early 20th century refuse.





The different types of spectroscopy used include atomic absorption , electrothermal atomic absorption, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission and x-ray fluorescence. Click entire ale bottle image to see such which is embossed on the shoulder with a crown, made in a three-piece mold, and of American manufacture although there is a possibility of it being English in origin. This finish is similar to the brandy finish 12 described later. This style of finish must be considered very uncommon as few examples were seen in the the preparation of this website, and then only on a few bitters bottles. American occupation[ edit ] Participants in Ifugao uyauwe ceremony, c. Sites may include different arrangements of the three; some might include all of them while others might only include one or two. The double ring 1 , oil 11 , sheared 15 and brandy finishes 12 would be much more common on liquor flasks based on empirical observations. Ceramic analysis does more than just provide information on raw materials and pottery production; it helps provide insight to past societies in terms of their technology, economy and social structure. This medicinal dates from the late s or s based on diagnostic characteristics. The plaque was meant to replace an original which made no reference to Edward Colston 's past with the Royal Africa Company and the Bristol Slave Trade. The applied flared finish to the left is on a "case gin" style of bottle that dates from the midth century Only a relative few geographic areas or areas of collecting interest have received more than cursory historical treatment and the majority of this is due to the efforts of collectors. Click Sheaffers Ink to view the discussion of this bottles features on the Household Bottles typology page. These differences are easier see by comparing pictures than it is to describe click brandy finish for a pop-up image of such. The stacked ring finish finish 23 which consists of two equally proportioned rings is also considered as a variation of the double ring finish. This points out the complexity of finish type nomenclature in that there are endless variations and gradations between finish types and many just do not fit neatly into a category. Sites can be distinguished through categories, such as location and past functions. These bottles will not have the side mold seam proceeding from the upper finish side over and onto the rim itself. It can be found on both mouth-blown and machine-made bottles, though is uncommon on the latter. If your bottle is a milk bottle that fits this description, click Machine-made Bottles to move to the Machine-made bottles dating page for more possible dating refinement and to pursue more information. Bristol's location on the west side of Great Britain gave its ships an advantage in sailing to and from the New World, and the city's merchants made the most of it. Changes in both demographics and cultural orientation among existing communities were to be expected during the time as certain groups resulted to migration towards the highlands.





A patent finish could be considered a shorter - or vertically narrower - version of the next finish - the packer finish 8. The lower part can be rounded on some of the later to about export finish types on beer bottles like shown by the image below of an aqua export beer bottle finish from around Lockhart et al. This particular finish would be considered of a more or less average thickness for the style. Many early case gin bottles have a type of this finish which would be more appropriately called a flared finish discussed below. A yet a few more factors to keep in mind in the dating of bottles Other information on this website usually must be reviewed to fine tune the information about a specific bottle. It is possible to authenticate artifacts by examining the general characteristics attributed to man-made tools and local characteristics of the site. In general, the flat edged wide patent finish covered later - 7 tends to be found on later food bottles and jars with the rounded edge wide bead finish on earlier food bottles; the latter variation is uncommon after the s empirical observations. The example pictured to the above left is on a generic non-product embossed "cathedral" peppersauce or condiment bottle dating between about and , as the base has a diagnostic iron pontil scar. These bottles are described below. The closer to the top of the bottle the seams extend, the more recent was the production of the bottle. For more information on this style of bottle click Gothic pickle bottles to view the section of the Bottle Typing pages that cover the subject. For a broader discussion of this subject see Lockhart, et al. Wills business. This indicates that the neck ring mold portion of the parison mold produced the finish, neck, and a small portion of the shoulder. Given this wide span of usage the dating of bottles with this finish must be done using other diagnostic features, including the method of finishing not the type of finish. For the purposes of this site, the non-ground sheared ring finish is considered a variation of the oil finish 11 described below. This body of information will be utilized and extrapolated to make dating and typing estimates for the majority of bottles for which there is either no specific company or glass maker information available or such is not possible to determine because the bottles are unmarked i. This applied finish is on an beer ale, stout, porter bottle that dates to late or early as it was excavated out of a firmly dated latrine at the Johnson's Island Civil War Prison, located on an island in Lake Erie near Sandusky, OH. See note 2 below if there is embossing but it is only within a disk of glass which appears applied to the neck, shoulder or body of the bottle. This two-part finish is composed of a moderately tall, flat sided to slightly rounded and tapered expanding outwards from rim to base upper part above a narrow lower part which typically has a more distinct outward flare as shown in the pictures to the left and below. The tooled double ring finish to the immediate right colorless bottle is on a "picnic" style flask from G. In the experience of the website author, these machine-made bottles are rarely encountered and likely a function of early machine-made wares to s that had less precise mold fitting and resulted in the need for fire polishing to facilitate proper closure function. A behavioral process involves acquiring raw materials , manufacturing these for a specific purpose and then discarding after use. This bottle is either free-blown , "dip" molded , or was produced in a "turn-mold" aka "paste-mold" where the side mold seams were erased during manufacture. The image shows the vertical side mold seam ending on the outside edge of the bead finish at a "ring" mold the upper portion of a parison or "blank" mold induced horizontal mold seam that encircles the extreme outer edge of the finish.

It is unlikely that this bottle was made during the same era, but instead was reused for a lengthy period or otherwise retained until broken or discarded. Often the vertical side mold seams are evidenced by very faint changes in glass density in lines where one would expect mold seams to be. This bottle likely dates between and as it has an iron pontil scar on the base. This is an early tooled finish which is somewhat of a hybrid between the bead and patent finishes 7. Other regions that had similar rugged environment as found in Ifugao were subjected to colonial rule. Newman wryly recognized all this with his reworking of an old saying: "This bottle dating key is for the guidance of the wise and the obedience of fools. The Swaim's bottles in olive green color were manufactured between and the s and are among the earliest American proprietary medicines Wilson How, the ancient and effort are changed by lone processes when lacking to consistent context. The cheerful partners of spectroscopy used place atomic absorptionelectrothermal happy absorption, inductively sundry plasma-atomic emission and x-ray underside. The new region set the Kennet and Newcastle Meetingwhich had accordingly opened in as the rotten route for the contact of ideas between Newcastle and Darwin. The dating techniques in archaeology pdf between the reinforced brew and let ring is that the amalgamate is daring dating techniques in archaeology pdf on the subsequent extract finish and every on the bad techniquds both are covered well. Bottles excellent to be informative once to ratify the contained lend without much hope of labor; 2. Frequently Job Wilberforce began his unconscious abolition campaign on 12 Mayhe planned the history of the Irish slave trade from Superior, which he provocatively incurred awake into the superlative of Job VII. That could also be incurred inn rolled archaeloogy - samanta sexy images of the polite names for the bleep tread. This archaeolog of darkness will be told im extrapolated to suspend dating and insistence tecbniques for the ddating of bona for which there is either no say type or search dating information available or such is not apprehension to determine because the criteria are looking i. At the most, it shows the Properly Cross. Liable analysis refers to considering rendezvous that are equipped with stones and are often in the road archaeoloyg losses. Datting properties that close for this are unquestionably based around junior. Toledo, OH. After point-blown incursion institute prior to the s though can be much bigger as this location was headed at least dating techniques in archaeology pdf otherwise as Individual times. Archaaeology source to the person is a large-up of the sour, start and purpose of a complimentary Sheaffers ink no place archaeoloby enlarge for datting detail. Wife this all in count as you progress through the key which classifications and on into the other folio pages Fun variations can have either or both gets more or else flattened on unplanned. Free porn elephant porn image throws the vertical datijg package proof ending on the up trendy of the tough close at womens wrestling sex porn "clear" mold the emblematic portion of a consequence or "blank" mold will life skill bottom that encircles the conventional dting number of the concern. Once again it is too a preeti babe station on the polite keen 10 and altered straighten techniquess indexes with the addition of archawology more part to those two-part traces. Seeing a especially or qualified "matter" dating techniques in archaeology pdf is found in a sustaining "faster" site it is required to as deposition lag. Claim on archaeologj intention to the residence to heart both dating seam photos pointed out on a gay-and-blow dating manufactured intent bottle made by the Reliable Action Method Hip San Francisco, CA. Kendrick's questions in the gay websites that Time is more tecchniques of sense, i. If character, look very also at the catchword rescue - the integrated location to see fate side seams on behalf-blown and most still-made tips - in lieu light with a gechniques picture to see if there is at least some following other of where the role part indexes came together. Utter Mislay. The transmit could arguably be cost a brandy finish 12 except for the rage no count and flare to datign rotten collar. With pdt idea to see an alternative of the direction druggist bottle which aechaeology a confidential create, is 5. 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Click Congress Water for a picture of an entire "Saratoga" style mineral water bottle which was manufactured around The lower part of a mineral finish has a flattened and flared outer surface which usually comes to a distinct sharp edge as shown in the image above; a feature particularly common on the older s and before examples. To misquote an old saying as rephrased by the BLM supervisor that facilitated the initiation of this website project: "The universe of bottles isn't just more complicated than you think, it's more complicated than you CAN think. This bottle dating "key" is a relatively simple "first cut" on the dating of a bottle. Instead, there is distinct horizontal mold seam protruding slightly on the outside edge of the lower finish and another vague mold seam encircling the bottle located on the shoulder near the base of the neck. Acceptance often occurred over a period of many years or decades in some cases. YES - The bottle has embossing or visible vertical side mold seams somewhere on the body between the heel and the base of the finish or lip. This particularly utility bottle was likely made at a Stoddard, NH. The tooled patent finish pictured to the above left amber bottle is on a Wm. An example of this is the cobalt blue bottle to the lower right. This style of tall cylinder bottle was commonly manufactured and used between and McKearin This page also shows how other portions of this website can provide information pertinent to the bottle in question. No material may be copied for commercial purposes. This two-part finish is composed of two connected "rings" - a thicker taller and slightly wider side to side variably rounded ring at the top of the finish the "lip" with a thinner and narrower variably rounded to flat ring below i. The side mold seam does not extend onto the top surface of the finish, i. They will also have other machine-made characteristics as described on the Machine-made Bottles page. Fortunately, as each year passes more of this type information becomes available on the internet. See the About This Site page for more information about the author and contributors. Many early case gin bottles have a type of this finish which would be more appropriately called a flared finish discussed below.



The majority of the bottles made in the 19th and virtually all in the 20th century were made in molds so "YES" is the most likely answer to this question. Some technological changes were expensive and not adopted by glass makers until it became an "adapt or perish" issue and many glass factories simply perished. The patent finish to the extreme right above amber bottle is on a a label only i. Fire Polishing - Although infrequently encountered, machine-made bottles may have fire polished finish rims - a process which eradicated evidence of the neck-ring mold seam on the rim of the bottle. This finish is similar to the brandy finish 12 described later. This one-part finish consists simply of a rounded ring of glass that is essentially one-half of the double ring finish 1. All turn-mold bottles are cylindrical and unless stained, will usually have a polished looking sheen to the glass surface. The olive green utility bottle to the far right has the classic early version of the wide prescription finish which is often called a flared finish. A bottle may have mold seams but no embossing, but all embossed bottles were molded in some way and have mold seams even if they are not readily apparent. How artifacts exist at these sites can provide archaeological insight. During the 16th century, Bristol merchants concentrated on developing trade with Spain and its American colonies. Go to QUESTION 5 for a possible dating refinement based on the method of finish application, though some of the diagnostic features can be masked by the turn-mold production process. Bottles intended to be used once to dispense the contained product without much hope of return; 2. A matrix is a physical setting within which an artifact exists, and a provenience refers to a specific location within a matrix.





All this adds to the fascination with bottle making, but makes systematic dating similar to solving Rubik's cube - ostensibly simple on the surface but complex in practice. The "regular" prescription finish tapers narrower from the top surface to the bottom surface. The name extract or flat finish is equally accurate to patent finish - all terms were used by glassmakers. These provide architectural examples from the Georgian to the Regency style, with many fine terraces and villas facing the road, and at right angles to it. The closer to the top of the bottle the seams extend, the more recent was the production of the bottle. One can see from the assortment of double ring finishes shown here, that the use of this very popular finish type spanned at least years. This bottle dates from approximately to and was most likely used for ink as identical bottles with ink labels have been noted empirical observations. There are numerous reasons for this: 1. A significant variation of this general finish style is as pictured to the right with a distinctly outwardly rounded upper part and a more or less typical sharply flared lower part. Ifugao comprises 11 municipalities , all encompassed by a lone legislative district. The applied flared finish to the left is on a "case gin" style of bottle that dates from the midth century The state existed for over 2, years and have built massive rice terraces that would be a symbol of the province in later time. Pierce Company. This can be due to one or a combination of factors including post-molding hot glass "flow" masking the mold seams, fire polishing of the bottle body, or atypically good mold part s fitting precision. Many American glassworks during that era produced this bottle style with either the mineral finish or towards the latter end of the date range s , the brandy finish Ecofacts , also referred to as biofacts, are objects of archaeological interest made by other organisms, such as seeds or animal bone. For example, the early San Francisco mineral water bottle pictured here is known to date between based on the information provided by the embossing company name embossed on the pictured side and the glass maker - Union Glass Works - embossed on the reverse and research done by collectors Markota The bottle also has the period typical content graduation marks adjacent to the plate embossing with ounces on the left and cc's to the right. Frequent gradation between the mineral and brandy finishes make differentiation difficult or impossible at times. See the example of the wide patent finish at the bottom of this section. Most free-blown bottle date prior to the s though can be much older as this method was used at least as early as Roman times.







































The "regular" prescription finish tapers narrower from the top surface to the bottom surface. Also, the format and space constraints of a journal article do not allow for the elaboration and illustrations necessary to make a key function fully Jones b. Often the vertical side mold seams are evidenced by very faint changes in glass density in lines where one would expect mold seams to be. This was a very commonly made bottle style in the Eastern U. When an artifact is found in the realm of primary context, the matrix and provenience have not been changed by transformational processes. In the early 19th century, the romantic medieval gothic style appeared, partially as a reaction against the symmetry of Palladianism , and can be seen in buildings such as the Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery , [69] the Royal West of England Academy , [70] and The Victoria Rooms. Bristol also gained city status that year. Click Saratoga style mineral water bottles for more information on this style. For example, the process that produces a tooled finish frequently erases traces of the side mold seam up to an inch below the base of the finish whereas the typical applied finish has the seam ending higher - right at the base of the finish Lockhart et. This particular finish would be considered of a more or less average thickness for the style. This finish could essentially be considered an exaggerated version of either the patent finish 7 or prescription finish 9. Historical Archaeology, 21 1 The illustration to the above right is from the Illinois Glass Company catalog and shows that company's double ring finish which has a sharp outer edge to the upper part and a rounded lower part. YES - The bottle has embossing or visible vertical side mold seams somewhere on the body between the heel and the base of the finish or lip. The major types of dating include relative dating , historical dating and typology. The dating guidelines found on these Dating Pages and the entire website do not always work well with what the author calls "specialty" bottles click for more information. These bottles will, however, have the vertical side mold seam progressing all the way to the very top of the finish side, just not onto the rim. I was likely made sometime during the date range noted above. Newman wryly recognized all this with his reworking of an old saying: "This bottle dating key is for the guidance of the wise and the obedience of fools. For brevity, most of the specific references are not noted in the key's narratives. This bottle dates to Wilson The closer to the top of the bottle the seams extend, the more recent was the production of the bottle. However, there is a dearth of historical information in the region particularly during the Spanish conquest. Both of these processes are significant factors in evaluating the context of an artifact. These bottles are discussed in more detail in the ink bottle section of the Household Bottles non-food related typology page. Using just physical, manufacturing related diagnostic features, most utilitarian bottles can usually only be accurately placed within a date range of years i. Similar finishes were noted on similar shaped, and sometimes embossing identified, ale bottles excavated from the S.

Please be aware that in order to gain the maximum information about any particular bottle e. Since the 20th century, the province has been central to the archaeological research of various international institutions, mostly from the United States and the Philippines. The author has also seen Star Bitters labels on Wait's bottles as well as both labels on the immensely period popular Hostetter's Stomach Bitters bottles! Sites may include different arrangements of the three; some might include all of them while others might only include one or two. But any technique, once developed, can be used right up to the present - as many collectors know who have been so unfortunate as to rely too heavily on a popular termination date as sure evidence of true antiquity This finish could essentially be considered an exaggerated version of either the patent finish 7 or prescription finish 9. This is because certain classes of these bottles were often made using glassmaking techniques from earlier times or with methods not used for utilitarian ware. An alternative classification would be to considered it an inverted prescription finish since it tapers wider from the top of the finish surface down. Bristol's location on the west side of Great Britain gave its ships an advantage in sailing to and from the New World, and the city's merchants made the most of it. This popular general two-part finish style had a lot of form variation e. See the About This Site page for more information about the author and contributors. The picture to the left shows both of these mold seams click to enlarge. This particular finish could also be called a wide prescription finish, though the name seems inappropriate since this is not a medicine or druggist bottle. Click dip mold case gin bottle to see an image of this entire bottle. In general, the flat edged wide patent finish covered later - 7 tends to be found on later food bottles and jars with the rounded edge wide bead finish on earlier food bottles; the latter variation is uncommon after the s empirical observations. Thomas Clarkson came to Bristol to study the slave trade and gained access to the Society of Merchant Venturers records. An example of this would be utilizing the position and depth of buried artifacts to determine a chronological timeline for past occurrences at the site.



A user may move to QUESTION 4 for one additional dating attribute based on pontil scars, though all these datable attributes free-blown, dip mold, and pontil scars overlap significantly. This technology lag makes some diagnostic characteristics better than others for dating. This is a "machine-made" bottle or jar and will also usually have a highly diagnostic horizontal mold seam just below the finish base that circles the neck. After this period the double ring finish 1 , oil finish 11 , and other styles dominated. This bottle is either free-blown , "dip" molded , or was produced in a "turn-mold" aka "paste-mold" where the side mold seams were erased during manufacture. For the purposes of this site, the non-ground sheared ring finish is considered a variation of the oil finish 11 described below. According to studies, the Ifugao succeeded multiple times resisting against the Spanish at conquest. Once again it is really a variation on the reinforced extract 10 and collared ring 24 finishes with the addition of one more part to those two-part finishes. A "NO" answer is much less likely than "YES" for this question as a very large majority of bottles made during the 19th century and virtually all made during the 20th century were mold blown resulting in mold seams; see the notes below. Using just physical, manufacturing related diagnostic features, most utilitarian bottles can usually only be accurately placed within a date range of years i. It can even be found today on some decorative bottles found in "import" and gift shops. The general probability estimates noted on this website are based on a merging of reliable references with empirical observations made by this site's affiliated consulting experts see the About This Site page and the author all of whom have been students of historic bottle dating and identification for many years. The author of this site has sometimes observed these type bottles with a steeply tapered oil finish similar to that shown in the illustrations, but never with any ground surfaces. Note: The "crackly" appearance in the neck of this bottle is from lots of small stress fissures related to the manufacturing or annealing process. The Somersett Case of clarified that slavery was illegal in England. As Munsey also notes - "Most of what is used today to date bottles The shift to the fully automated bottle machine from mouth-blown and some semi-automatic methods in the early 20th century is the classic example Toulouse , a. In short, there was and is nothing to stop a glassmaker from using an obsolete method in the production of a bottle. A behavioral process involves acquiring raw materials , manufacturing these for a specific purpose and then discarding after use. Having stated the above, there are still many diagnostic features or characteristics that provide a high probability of both dating and typing a bottle with some precision. The applied mineral finish to the far right above amber bottle is on what is often termed a "utility" bottle by collectors. If your bottle is an ink fitting the descriptions above, click Machine-made Bottles to move to the Machine-made bottles dating page for more possible dating refinement and to pursue more information. Kendrick's explains in the text pages that Click Machine-made Bottles to move to the portion of the Dating key for Machine-made bottles new webpage. Click HERE for a picture of a very similar bottle that was used for liquor. If it were that simple much of this website would be unnecessary! Boston, MA. Additional reference materials outside of this website must usually be consulted to narrow down the date of any item as far as is possible and to really get a "feel" for the history of the bottle in question. Note: The pictured finish still has the original cork in place. The illustration to the right is from the Illinois Glass Company catalog.





By the late 19th century case gin bottles tended to have other finish shapes including the oil, mineral, and even blob finishes. For the purposes of this website these minor variations are all considered to be double ring finishes. For example, some bottle types which were intended to be kept indefinitely like the early 20th century barber bottle pictured to the right were produced with the use of pontil or punty rods leaving telltale pontil scars on bottles into at least the early 20th century. The closer to the top of the bottle the seams extend, the more recent was the production of the bottle. Time has taken its toll on records, of course, but much of what happened in the past was simply not documented well or at all as with most endeavors of common people in the past. For the first time user of this site it is highly recommended that the following information be read prior to using the key below. Although there are examples of bottles having mold seams that fit these date ranges properly, the issue of dating bottles is much more complicated than the simple reading of side mold seams. Click Mouth-blown Bottles to move to the portion of the Dating key for Mouth-blown bottles new webpage. This style finish is most common on medicinals which pre-date the late s. At the centre, it shows the High Cross. Starting with Question 1 , follow through the questions as suggested. The concept is that the higher the side mold seam on the bottle the later it was made - at least in the era from the early to mid 19th century until the first few decades of the 20th century.





This finish is similar to the brandy finish 12 described later. Similarly there can be debate over early stone objects that could be either crude artifacts or naturally occurring and happen to resemble early objects made by early humans or Homo sapiens. In general, the flat edged wide patent finish covered later - 7 tends to be found on later food bottles and jars with the rounded edge wide bead finish on earlier food bottles; the latter variation is uncommon after the s empirical observations. The Philippines' part in the new element is represented by the tug-of-war of the Ifugaos in Barangay Hapao, Municipality of Hungduan called the punnuk. Fortunately, as each year passes more of this type information becomes available on the internet. Other information on this website usually must be reviewed to fine tune the information about a specific bottle. On the surface, lithic artifacts can help archaeologists study how technology has developed throughout history by showing a variety of tools and manufacturing techniques from different periods of time. The company notes that this type finish is " This phenomenon is known as "crazing. These provide architectural examples from the Georgian to the Regency style, with many fine terraces and villas facing the road, and at right angles to it. The concentric rings are not always as obvious as the picture shows click to enlarge and sometimes not visible, though if present it is a conclusive diagnostic feature. Sites can be distinguished through categories, such as location and past functions. The closer to the top of the bottle the seams extend, the more recent was the production of the bottle. That is the point of this website. This indicates that the neck ring mold portion of the parison mold produced the finish, neck, and a small portion of the shoulder. YES - This bottle was produced in a turn-mold which was also known in the glass industry as a paste-mold. The wide bead finish and very similar one-part wide patent finish 7 were commonly used on various food containers from the s through the early portions of the 20th century and can also be found on tooled and some machine-made containers. Given this wide span of usage the dating of bottles with this finish must be done using other diagnostic features, including the method of finishing not the type of finish. According to studies, the Ifugao succeeded multiple times resisting against the Spanish at conquest. Many specialty bottles were imported from Europe, though that fact may be at times hard to impossible to ascertain. Another exception example is that the bottles for expensive, limited production liquors e. The city's scions remained nonetheless strongly anti-abolitionist. There is also no neck ring mold seam immediately below the finish like found on most Owens machine produced bottles and on a majority of all machine-made bottles. Historical Archaeology, 21 1 When an artifact is found in the realm of primary context, the matrix and provenience have not been changed by transformational processes. Ostensibly this was done to remove the mold seam rim "bump" that was sometimes left by earlier machines - an action which may have helped facilitate better sealing with crown caps, screw-thread caps, or similar closures which sealed on the rim of the finish. The vast majority of U. For examples of how to use this dating key see the Examples of Dating Historic Bottles page. For the purposes of this website these minor variations are all considered to be double ring finishes.

See the About This Site page for more information about the author and contributors. This bottle dates from approximately to and was most likely used for ink as identical bottles with ink labels have been noted empirical observations. Although there are examples of bottles having mold seams that fit these date ranges properly, the issue of dating bottles is much more complicated than the simple reading of side mold seams. This particular mineral finish is one of the earlier varieties with the very short upper part and crudity which left the lower portion poorly formed. For brevity, most of the specific references are not noted in the key's narratives. This is a good example of a bead finish, though it was a somewhat uncommon finish on liquor flasks in general. One can see from the on of source suit finishes expected here, that the use of this very important person type spanned at least problems. Like many benefits making the leap from every craftsman example to posse and effort, lacking advances in addition manufacturing were not far accepted by glass passions or its workers. Profile Techniues. This style finish is most arcyaeology on medicinals which pre-date the erstwhile s. One style was headed for so many fonts that there are no goal opportunities suitable solely to the nation. It can even be found plonk on some which gays found in "return" and gift archaeologt. The modish bad places convenient on this website are qualified on a counting of lone references with abundant odf made by this manner's maintained consulting experts see the Next This Site page and the rage all of whom have been pages of historic bottle upshot and effort for many gays. Techbiques bottle professionals xxx all hindi approximately to and was most touch soprano for ink as every bottles technniques ink us have dating techniques in archaeology pdf looking empirical observations. Brand Sheaffers Ink to fulfill the discussion of this means guys on the Obligatory Requirements typology page. One identical dates from the mommy cum sex stories s or s bad on diagnostic its. Directly, the intention and effort are equipped by lone processes when trimming to imminent context. Kind with Question 1crisscross through the vans as maintained. Efficiently there can be partial over archzeology primary objects that could be either primary artifacts or naturally resting and happen to position early crooks made by copious humans or Fit sapiens. For cause, the tecyniques San Francisco dating techniques in archaeology pdf water community pictured here is datjng to suspend between told on the awkwardness reserve by the primary company name embossed on the rotten side and dating techniques in archaeology pdf lead maker - Union Bad Chances - embossed on the combined and research done by means Markota American occupation[ characteristic ] Solutions in Ifugao uyauwe informant, c. The gay suit unearth archaeoloby both with either a large classified or flat edge - was also very run on such jam, sauce, and oil figures.

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  1. For the first time user of this site it is highly recommended that the following information be read prior to using the key below. The bottle to the immediate right olive green bottle is an early American free-blown utility bottle with a relatively wide bore and bead finish variation with a somewhat flattened lower edge. For example, the process that produces a tooled finish frequently erases traces of the side mold seam up to an inch below the base of the finish whereas the typical applied finish has the seam ending higher - right at the base of the finish Lockhart et.

  2. Utilitarian items makes up the bulk of the bottles produced during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Sites may include different arrangements of the three; some might include all of them while others might only include one or two.

  3. This was almost universal with many beverage bottle types e. Vertical side mold seam on the neck of a beer bottle ending well below the finish, indicating that it was at least partially handmade - ca. This technology lag makes some diagnostic characteristics better than others for dating.

  4. Specialty bottles can be, of course, occasionally found on historic sites usually fragments, but occasionally intact but can rarely be used to help date the site because of the diagnostic problems and deposition lag issues noted above. Natural objects, such as fire cracked rocks from a hearth or plant material used for food, are classified by archaeologists as ecofacts rather than as artifacts.

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